Submitted to: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/1/2001
Publication Date: 7/20/2001
Citation: HAVERSON, K., SAALMULLER, A., ALVAREZ, B., DAVIS, W.C., LEDBETTER, J.A., LUNNEY, J.K., NIELSEN, J.K., VALPOTIC, I., ZUCKERMANN, F.A., ZWART, R. OVERVIEW OF THE THIRD INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP OF SWINE LEUKOCYTE DIFFERENTIATION ANTIGENS. VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGY. 80:5-23. 2001. Interpretive Summary: Researchers interested in studying the effects of vaccine and drug treatments in pigs have been thwarted by the lack of well-characterized immune reagents for the species. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that identify immune cells and immune molecules, like the immunoglobulins, cytokines and chemokines, must be available. The Third International Workshop on Swine Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (Swine CD workshop), supported by the Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) of the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS), took place over the last 4 years. After an international exchange of 200 mAb from 32 laboratories, each of the 15 analytic laboratories assayed the 200 mAb for reactivities on characterized subsets of swine immune cells. Our laboratory submitted mAb and participated in the analyses. The mAb testing results were analyzed using appropriate clustering programs. Each mAb was then assigned a leukocyte differentiation (CD) antigen, or workshop cluster (WC), number based on nomenclature for swine, human and ruminant CD antigens. As a result of this workshop there are now 36 CD antigens recognized internationally for swine immune cell subsets. Clearly more need to be defined since over 170 CD antigens are known in humans. New mAb are slowly being produced in labs worldwide and a new effort, the 8th Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen (HLDA8) workshop, will include an Animal Homologues section that will look at a broad range of anti-human CD mAb for cross reactions with a range of species including swine. Such mAb reagents enable swine disease researchers to determine how infectious agents cause disease and will help them to design new disease treatments and vaccines.
Technical Abstract: The aim of the Third International Workshop on Swine Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (CD workshop), was to standardize the assignment of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) reactive with porcine leukocyte differentiation antigens and to define new antibody clusters, using nomenclature in accordance with human and ruminant CD nomenclature: only mAb with proven reactivity for the orthologous porcine gene product or cross-reactivity for the human gene product, were given the full CD nomenclature, all other allocations were prefixed with 'w'. In addition to the existing 26 pig leukocyte CD/SWC determinants established in previous workshops, this workshop established/confirmed another 11 CDs for pig leukocytes, identified by a total of 21 mAb: CD11R1,CD11R2, CD11R3, wCD40, wCD46, wCD47, wCD49d, wCD61, wCD92, wCD93 and CD163. Of 27 mAb previously reported to be cross-reactive, only 10 could be unequivocally recommended by this workshop for use on pig cells, three more were clearly and consistently crossreactive, but with the caveat of different ligand expression on pig cells. In the case of wCD40, wCD49d, wCD92 and wCD93, the cross-reactivity of four single established anti-human mAb with porcine cells allowed the assignment of the orthologous CD for pigs, where sufficiently similar cellular expression was found during this workshop. In the case of three mAb directed to human CD11b, CD11c and CD50, cross-reactivity with ligands on porcine cells, but with different cellular distribution, was shown. In the case of the mAb to CD11, this led to the establishment of a new CD11 nomenclature for pigs, i.e. CD11R1, CD11R2 and CD11R3. A total of 24 new mAb were assigned to the existing clusters and are noted in the tables.