Submitted to: Lipids
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/2/2001
Publication Date: 1/1/2002
Citation: Judd, J.T., Baer, D.J., Clevidence, B.A., Chen, S., Muesing, R.A., Kramer, M., Meijer, G.M. 2002. Plant sterol esters, plasma lipids and carotenoids. Lipids. Interpretive Summary: Plant sterols can decrease risk for cardiovascular disease by improving blood lipid profiles. Sterol fortified food products (margarines) are generally high in fat (40% or higher), yet the effectiveness of plant sterols may be unrelated to the amount of fat in the carrier food. To determine the effectiveness of plant sterol esters (PSE) in salad dressings, 53 men and women were fed controlled diets with either a "Ranch" dressing (27% fat) or an "Italian" dressing (12.6% fat) each containing 3.6 g PSE. Diets having dressing without (control) and with PSE (test) were fed for 3 wk/diet and crossed over randomly. Plasma LDL cholesterol (LDLC), HDL cholesterol (HDLC), and triglyceride (TG) responses of men and women to the study diets were similar and not affected by the type of salad dressing they consumed. Switching from a self-selected baseline diet to a controlled diet with no PSE resulted in a significant reduction of LDLC of 7.9%, HDLC of 3.1%, and TG of 9.2%. Daily consumption of 3.6 g PSE resulted in further decreases in LDLC of 9.7% and TG of 7.3% with no effect on HDLC. While total plasma carotenoids, uncorrected for plasma lipids, decreased compared to control, all plasma carotenoids concentrations remained within normal ranges. We conclude that low fat foods, such as reduced fat salad dressing, are effective carriers for PSE. These results benefit individuals who are at risk for cardiovascular disease, regulatory agencies and food manufacturers.
Technical Abstract: The ability of plant sterol esters (PSE) in salad dressing to modify plasma lipids and carotenoids was determined in 26 men and 27 women fed controlled, weight maintaining, isocaloric diets. Diets contained typical American foods that provided 32 to 33 percent of energy from fat. Dressings contained 8 g (Ranch) or 4 g (Italian) fat per serving. PSE, 3.6 g/d (2.2 g sterol equivalent), was provided in two servings/d of one of the two dressings. In a parallel arm study, diets with either Ranch or Italian dressing without (control) and with PSE (test) were fed for 3 wk/diet and crossed over randomly within dressings. The diets were adjusted to similar fat and fatty acid concentrations. Type of salad dressing did not affect plasma lipids, lipoproteins, carotenoids of fat soluble vitamins (p>0.05). Switching from a self-selected baseline diet to the control diet with no PSE resulted in reduction in LDL cholesterol of 7.9 %, a decrease in HDL cholesterol of 3.1 %, and a decrease in triglycerides of 9.3 % . Consumption of 3.6 g PSE resulted in further decreases in LDL cholesterol of 9.7 % and triglycerides of 7.3 %. There was no change in HDL cholesterol. Total plasma carotenoids decreased 9.6 % with consumption of PSE compared to control. An automated statistical procedure incorporating a mixed analysis of variance model with a stepwise model selection procedure was utilized to correct for covariance with blood lipids in the determination of plasma carotenoid responses to PSE. There were significant decreases in B-carotene, a-carotene, phytofluene, and B-cryptoxanthin (females only) which were not associated with changes in plasma lipids. We conclude that low fat foods, such as salad dressings, are effective carriers for PSE.