Submitted to: Biotechnology Advances
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/1/2001
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: Interpretive Summary: Breakdown of food proteins by enzymes frequently results in bitter taste. In this paper, the causes for the production of bitter compounds (small protein breakdown products) in various food protein formulations such as milk, soybean, corn, meat, and fish are presented. The methods for the prevention, reduction, and elimination of these bitter compounds as well as sways of masking bitter taste are described. The manuscript will be of great value to academic, government, and industrial scientists who are currently working or planning to work on developing food protein products.
Technical Abstract: Enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins frequently results in bitter taste, which is due to the formation of low molecular weight peptides composed of mainly hydrophobic amino acids. Methods for debittering of protein hydrolyzates include selective separation such as treatment with activated carbon, extraction with alcohol, isoelectric precipitation, chromatography on silica gel, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and masking of bitter taste. Bio-based methods include further hydrolysis of bitter peptides with enzymes such as aminopeptidase, alkaline/neutral protease and carboxypeptidase, condensation reactions of bitter peptides using protease, and use of Lactobacillus as a debittering starter adjunct. The causes for the production of bitter peptides in various food protein hydrolyzates and the development of methods for the prevention, reduction, and elimination of bitterness as well as masking of bitter taste in enzymatic protein hydrolyzates are presented.