Submitted to: Academic Press
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/7/2001
Publication Date: 4/1/2003
Citation: SANDERS, T.H. GROUNDNUT OIL. CABALLERO, B., TRUGO, L. FINGLAS, P., EDITORS.ACADEMIC PRESS, LTD., LONDON, UK. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FOOD SCIENCES AND NUTRITION. 2003. P. 2967-2974.
Technical Abstract: Groundnut oil is expressed from the seed of Arachis hypogaea L., commonly known as groundnut or peanut. More than 50% of the groundnuts produced throughout the world are crushed for oil. The seed of the groundnut fruit commonly contain 40-50% total oil. Peanut oil uses include cooking and frying oil, preparation of shortenings, margarines, and mayonnaise. As a cooking oil, especially in deep-fat frying, groundnut oil is excellent since it has a smoke point of 229.4 C. Groundnut oil is composed of mixed glycerides and contains a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, in particular, oleic (18:1) and linoleic (18:2). Tocopherol content of peanut oil has been demonstrated to be as high as 650 ppm depending on the variety of peanut and growing conditions. Peanut lines with a high oleic acid trait have been identified and this trait has been incorporated into commercial peanuts. Recent studies have been conducted in which healthy subjects consumed one of five diets: a low fat diet, one including olive oil, one including peanuts and peanut butter, one including peanut oil, and a typical American diet. Results show that the diet including peanuts and peanut butter, the one including peanut oil, and the diet including olive oil (all low in saturated fat and cholesterol, and high in monounsaturated fat) lowered total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Each of these three diets lowered triglyceride levels, but did not lower the beneficial HDL cholesterol.