Submitted to: Canadian Journal of Botany
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/10/2003
Publication Date: 5/16/2003
Citation: YATES, I.E., ARNOLD, J.W., HINTON, D.M., BASINGER, W., WALCOTT, R. FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES INDUCTION OF MAIZE SEED ROT AND ITS CONTROL. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY. 2003. v.81. p.422-428. Interpretive Summary: Fusarium moniliforme infections of corn are an agricultural concern because of causing plant diseases and producing mycotoxins harmful to animal and human health. Iodine-based compounds have been used as microbial control agents in human and animal health for centuries, but not in agrochemicals. Control of F. moniliforme growth was analyzed for Plantpro 45 TM [Trade Mark/TradeName] which has an iodine-based active ingredient (a. i.). Isolated F. moniliforme conidia and F. moniliforme-infected seed were assayed for sensitivity to Plantpro. Plantpro was applied to seed by immersion and spraying. Growth of isolated F. moniliforme conidia was inhibited by 5 ppm a. i. Suppression of F. moniliforme growth from infected seed required Plantpro at 250 ppm and 1000 ppm a. i. following immersion and spraying, In summary, laboratory studies indicate Plantpro merits investigation into other commercial techniques of application and field trials for use as a biologically compatible control agent of F. moniliforme growth and ensuing production of the mycotoxins, fumonisins. Plantpro may prove to have commercial applications as a pre-harvest control for seed rot in unfavorable growing seasons and kernel infections via the silk and insect vectors. The agent may also be useful as a post-harvest control to prevent F. moniliforme growth and mycotoxin production when kernels are inadequately stored.
Technical Abstract: Control of Fusarium verticillioides growth was analyzed for Plantpro 45TM [Trade Mark/Name] a material with an iodine-based active ingredient (a.i.). Methods were used to determine the sensitivity of F. verticillioides to Plantpro under conditions conducive to F. verticillioides growth involved isolated F. verticillioides conidia and F. verticillioides-infected and non-infected corn seed. Plantpro was applied by two methods, spraying and immersion. Seed rot was induced in F. verticillioides-infected, but not non-infected seed. F. verticillioides conidial growth was inhibited at < 5 ppm Plantpro iodine-based a.i. Suppression of F. verticillioides growth from infected corn seed required a higher concentration than conidia. A 20 min immersion of infected seed immerssed in Plantpro required 250 ppm iodine-based a.i. to reduce F. verticillioides growth by 70% without detrimental effects on plant development. Seed sprayed using a commercial type apparatus required 1000ppm Plantpro to inhibit fungal growth while optimizing plant survival and development. Thus, Plantpro can be applied to corn seed at levels that will control F. verticillioides growth without reducing plant survival and development. Plantpro may prove commercially applicable to control growth from air disbursed conidia during pre-harvest growth of the corn plant, to protect corn seed from Fumonision B1 accumulation during inadequate storage, to prevent seed rot during unfavorable growing seasons. Plantpro 45 TM would be a novel material for agricultural use because iodine-based activie ingredients have not been used as a fungal control in agrochemicals in spite of the centuries of use as a disinfectant in human and animal health care products.