Submitted to: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/9/2000
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Acidaminococcus (Rogosa, 1969) emend. Cook, Rainey, Chen, Stackebrandt, and Russell 1994a (A.cid.a.min.o.coc'cus. M.L. n. acidum acid; M.L. adj. amono amino; Gr. n. coccus a grain, berry; M.L. masc. n. Acidaminococcus the amino acid coccus). Cocci, 0.6-1.0 um in diameter, often occurring as oval or kidney-shaped diplococci. Nonsporulating. Gram-negative. Nonmotile; flagella are not present. The cell-wall contains meso-diaminopimelic acid whole cells contain galactose, glucose and ribose. Menaquinones and ubiquinones are absent. Anaerobic; no growth on the surface of agar media incubated in the air. Optimal growth at 30-37 C and pH 7.0. Oxidase- and catalase-negative. Chemoorganotrophic: D- and L-Glutamate, trans-aconitate and citrate are the known energy sources. Apparently, other amino acids, pyruvate, lactate, fumarate, malate, and succinate are not used as energy sources. Only ~ 40 % of the strains catabolize glucose, from which only little acid is produced. On complex media, ammonia, CO2, acetate, butyrat and hydrogen are produced, whereas propionate and valerate have not been detected. Glutamate is fermented to about 1.0 CO2, 1.0 ammonia, 1.2 acetate, 0.4 butyrate and up to 10 kPa H2; citrate and trans-aconitate are fermented to about 2.0 CO2, 1.8 acetate, 0.1 butyrate and 90 kPa H2. Nutritional requirements are complex. Isolated from the intestinal tract of the pig and man. Has also been isolated from cattle rumen, but it is not usually a predominant ruminal bacterium. G + C content of the DNAs range from 54.7 to 57.4 mol%. Type species: Acidaminococcus fermentans Rogosa 1969, 765.