Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/10/2001
Publication Date: 4/15/2001
Citation: razo, S.V., Doehlert, D.C., D'Appolonia, B. 2001. Application of oat oil in bread baking. Cereal Chemistry. 78:243-248. Interpretive Summary: Commercially baked bread frequently contains some type of fat, such as vegetable shortening, to improve the texture and shelf life of the product. The recognition that trans-fatty acids in shortening can contribute to heart disease has led to testing of alternative natural products for this purpose. We have tested the utility of oat oil in bread formulations and found it to create many of the favorable characteristics of shortening, but can be used at lower concentrations than shortening. The portion of the oat oil containing phospholipids and glycolipids was particularly effective at improving loaf volume and delaying bread staling. This work introduces the possibility of using oat oil in bread formulations.
Technical Abstract: Lipids, especially polar lipids, can improve loaf volume, grain and texture, and delays staling in bread. Oats (Avena sativa L.) are rich in total and polar lipids. We have investigated the effect of oat lipids in a bread formulation on loaf volume, appearance and bread staling. Oat oil was fractionated into polar and non-polar fractions by water-degumming. Crude oat oil and shortening (at 3%) increased loaf volume by about 11% over the zero lipid formulation. The polar lipid fraction increased loaf volume by nearly the same amount when added at only at 0.5% level. The addition of 3% crude oat oil or 0.7% oat oil polar fraction significantly delayed bread firming and starch retrogradation with the difference between oat lipids and shortening being more evident at the end of a five-day storage period. Oat lipids had a stronger effect with bread from a weak flour (10% protein) than with a strong flour (14% protein). The effects of oat oil in the bread formulation could be related to the amphipathic character of polar lipids in oats that enables them to interact with starch, proteins, and other bread components.