Submitted to: Soil Tillage Research Organization International Conference Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/31/2000
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: Interpretive Summary: In the Poland, the loamy sand soils are often subject to wind erosion, because the conventional tillage system uses multiple passes that tend to pulverize surface soil aggregates. In this study, conventional (multi-pass),integrated (single-pass), and conservation (single-pass) systems for soil preparation and sowing of crops were compared. The integrated tillage created surfaces with higher values of nonerodible-size soil aggregates, surface roughness and dry aggregate stabilities compared with the conventional system. Yields of barley and sugar beets were highest with the integrated system and lowest in the conservation system. Low seedling germination and emergence contributed to low yields in the conservation system. However, fuel consumption was lowest with the conservation system and highest in the conventional system. To obtain the highest yields and control wind erosion, the integrated tillage system is recommended for the low porosity, loamy sand soils.
Technical Abstract: Wind erosion often occurs near the times of sowing of both spring and fall crops on the intensively-cultivated, sandy soils that occupy large areas in Poland. The objectives of this study were to design and evaluate an integrated tillage system that could reduce the erosion hazard on these low- porosity, loamy sand soils. To achieve the first objective, an integrated tillage system was developed that performed plowing, presowing, and sowing operations in a single tractor pass. Crop yields and fuel consumption were compared for sugar beets and barley using three tillage systems: conservation, integrated, and conventional multipass tillage. The highest yields were obtained with the integrated system. Fuel consumption was lowest with the conservation system. Finally, the integrated system modified the soil structure. Compared to the conventional tillage system, it produced a larger fraction of nonerodible aggregates that had higher dry-aggregate stabilities at the soil surface. These changes in the surface soil structure created by the integrated system reduced the potential wind erosion in spring by more than 85 percent and nearly eliminated the fall erosion hazard that occurs with the conventional tillage system. Based on these research results, adoption of the integrated tillage system is recommended for loamy sand soils with low natural porosities.