Submitted to: Euphytica International Journal on Plant Breeding
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/22/2003
Publication Date: 7/20/2004
Citation: Golan-Goldhirsh, A., Wang, Z.S., Khandka, D.K., Rowland, L.J., Kostiukovsky, V. 2004. Genetic relationships among mediterranean pistacia species evaluated by rapd. Euphytica International Journal on Plant Breeding. Interpretive Summary: Five species of the Pistacia genus grow naturally in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern areas, P. lentiscus, P. atlantica, P. palestina, P. terebinthus, and P. khinjuk. P. vera originated in central Asia and is cultivated throughout the Mediterranean region and worldwide. The approximately 100 cultivars of P. vera grown worldwide are derived from a few primitive varieties resulting in a high degree of genetic vulnerability. This narrow genetic base cannot meet the needs of breeders working toward improving cultivars for higher yields, better quality, disease resistance, etc. For this reason, we have characterized a larger, more diverse collection of Pistacia germplasm, including the wild Mediterranean and Middle Eastern types, using a type of DNA marker known as RAPDs (random amplified polymorphic DNA). Similarities between RAPD marker profiles were used to group these wild Pistacia species, P. vera, and P. chinensis (originating in California) according to their genetic relatedness. The species clustered into two main groups, one comprised of P. lentiscus and the other comprised of all others. The latter could be divided into two subgroups, one consisting of P. palaestina, P. terebinthus, and P. chinensis; the other consisting of P. atlantica, P. khinjuk, and P. vera. This information can be used by breeders to identify the most divergent wild germplasm for introduction into the cultivated P. vera background.
Technical Abstract: Polymorphisms between Mediterranean basin Pistacia species and ecotypes within species were assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Twenty-nine Pistacia accessions from 7 species, selected from geographically diverse locations in the Mediterranean area, were analyzed. A total of 302 DNA fragments were amplified by 27 primers. There were 264 (87.5%) polymorphic fragments. Of these, 108 (35.8%) were polymorphic for the 12 P. atlantica accessions, and 90 (29.8%) were polymorphic for the 7 P. lentiscus accessions. Ten P. atlantica species-specific and fourteen P. lentiscus species-specific RAPD markers were identified. Cluster analysis of the data showed that these Pistacia species could be clustered into two groups, one group containing all the P. lentiscus accessions and the second group containing all the other accessions. The latter could be divided into two subgroups, one consisting of P. palaestina, P. terebinthus, and P. chinensis; the other consisting of P. atlantica, P. khinjuk, and P. vera. The latter two species were highly similar as were P. palaestina and P. terebinthus.