Submitted to: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/1/2000
Publication Date: 7/1/2000
Citation: Landolt, P.J., Brumley, J.A., Biddick, L.L., Hofstetter, R.W. 2000. Apple fruit infested with codling moth have increased amounts of E,E- Alpha-Farnesene and greater attractiveness to neonate codling moth larvae. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 26:1685-1699. Interpretive Summary: Novel pest control methods are needed that are effective, economical, safe, and are environmentally compatible. The codling moth is a key pest of apple and pear fruits in the United States and is currently managed primarily by insecticide applications and by mating disruption supplemented by insecticide applications. Scientists at the USDA-ARS Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory are working to develop attractants for this pest as a means of reducing fruit infestation. It was found that larvae of the codling moth are more strongly attracted to apple fruit that has already been infested by another larva and that the chemical E,E-alpha-farnesene is also increased in these infested fruit. Other types of injury evaluated did not have quite the same effect, either on the attractiveness of the fruit to larvae or on the production of this chemical. These findings indicate a possible role of E,E-alpha-farnesene in the attraction of larvae to fruit that will help in future efforts to identify the attractants in apple. Identification of these larval attractants will permit the development of baits to control codling moth with reduced pesticide use.
Technical Abstract: Apple fruit artificially infested with codling moth larvae attracted significantly more neonate larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), than uninfested fruit. A greater number of larvae responded to odor in an olfactometer from codling moth- infested cold-stored Red Delicious thinning apples than uninfested apples. Immature Granny Smith, Red Delicious, or Fuji apples that were infested on the tree for 5 days by codling moth larvae were more attractive to neonate codling moth larvae than uninfested fruit of the same varieties. Apples infested on the tree and sampled 5 days later also contained significantly greater amounts of the larval attractant E,E-alpha-farnesene, compared to uninfested apples. Other types of injury to apple fruit did not produce results similar to that from codling moth infestation, either in increased attractiveness to codling moth larvae or in increased quantities of E,E-alpha-farnesene.