Submitted to: Biology of Animal Stress Basic Principles and Implications for Animal Welfa
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/7/1999
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Neuroendocrine and endocrine responses to stress play an integral role in the maintenance of homeostasis. It is now clear that the immune system participates in the neuroendocrine response to stress at a variety of levels. In general, endocrine responses to stress work toward inhibiting non-essential functions such as growth and reproduction, in favor of maintenance and survival. Substantial evidence suggests that neuroendocrine responses to stress can be specific and graded, rather than "all or none." Acute responses have important adaptive functions and are vital to coping and survival. Long-term chronic stressors elicit endocrine responses that may actually contribute to morbidity and mortality. The effects of stress on appetite are well recognized, but we are just beginning to understand the complex hormonal interplay mediating these effects. Integrated, multi-disciplinary approaches that fully utilize emerging technologies and methods of molecular biology, neurology, and endocrinology will lead future advances in our understanding of the biology of stress.