Location: Crop Germplasm Research
Project Number: 3091-21000-037-00
Start Date: Apr 18, 2013
End Date: Apr 17, 2018
To regenerate the collection (subobjective 1A), 10% of all accessions will be grown and harvested for seed increase annually at the Cotton Winter Nursery in Tecoman, Mexico, and in greenhouses and the field at College Station, TX. The genetic diversity of the collection will be strategically increased, filling gaps identified using taxonomic, pedigree, or geographic records, as well as molecular genetics data (Subobjective 1C). The primary means for filling gaps in the collection will be through explorations and germplasm exchanges with other nations' collections. To better characterize and more efficiently maintain the collection, diversity reference subsets will be developed that represent genomes, species, or other taxonomic groups. In creating reference sets, criteria for selecting accessions for inclusion will be geographic diversity, ecological diversity, morphological diversity, and differing degrees of human manipulation within the set. Once assembled, the genetic diversity within reference subsets will be determined using SSR molecular markers. To maximize the genotypic information acquired from SSR genotyping, genome- or species-specific SSR markers will be identified (subobjective 2B). Criteria for marker inclusion in core subsets are: SSRs with known map positions, high polymorphism information, high PCR quality, and easily scored and analyzed. DNA marker profiles for accessions within diversity reference subsets, will be evaluated for genetic diversity (subobjective 2C). Phylogenetic relationships will be evaluated using combinations of population genetic software, including JMP Genomics, GENALEX, NTSYSpc, STRUCTURE, and/or MEGA. Routine phenotypic characterizations of germplasm will be made and/or verified for approximately 1,000 accessions annually in the CWN, or in our greenhouses at College Station, using passport and descriptor data for cotton that follow the guidelines set by Bioversity International (subobjective 3A). Approximately 10% of collection will be digitally recorded annually and image libraries created for public use in CottonGen and GRIN databases (subobjective 3B). A standardized set of images of leaves, flowers, and bolls will be recorded using high resolution cameras. Evaluations of the collection for priority agronomic traits will be conducted as cooperative efforts with public research groups. The project will aid collaborators and independent evaluation projects by developing relevant sets of accessions for testing, providing seed for testing, and developing and making available uniform descriptors and techniques for characterizing accessions (subobjective 3C). A series of meetings will be held with cooperators to jointly develop uniform measurements for evaluating water use efficiency, drought tolerance, heat tolerance, etc. Several pre-breeding projects will be conducted to develop genetic resources for cotton improvement efforts. These projects vary in goals from day-length conversion in G. barbadense, to fiber quality improvement in G. hirsutum, to oil content improvement, and vary in methods from recurrent selection, to pedigree breeding, back-cross breeding, and single-seed descent.