Location: Dairy and Functional Foods
2011 Annual Report
2: Develop technologies to modify the level and stability of selected biological active compounds (BACs) in milk and cheese. 2.a: Determine effects of common milk processing procedures and storage conditions on the concentration and stability of the selected BACs in milk. 2.b: Determine the effects of cheese manufacturing techniques and aging on the concentration and stability of selected BACs in cheese and correlate to changes in quality traits. 2.c: Develop low-salt high-moisture model cheese to determine effects of low-salt environment on the concentration and stability of BACs during aging and correlate to changes in quality traits.
One phase of the project will characterize the naturally occurring BACs in milk and identify sources of milk with high levels of BACs; in particular, milk from multiple organic and conventional farms in mid and eastern Pennsylvania will be evaluated for BACs to determine quality and seasonal variations. Another phase will develop technologies to modify the levels and stability of selected BACs in milk and cheese. Milk will be obtained from organic and conventional farms and processed at the DFFRU milk processing pilot plant with portions being used to manufacture high-moisture cheese (Queso Blanco). The effects of common dairy industry milk processing procedures and storage conditions on the concentration and stability of selected BACs will be evaluated. In another phase of the project, low-sodium high-moisture cheese model will be created to evaluate the effect of the low-sodium environment on the stability of the BACs and the quality traits of the cheese.
Milk and dairy products are known to exhibit biological activities, which may be beneficial for human health. Assays to measure antioxidative (protects against harmful molecules known as free radicals in the body) and antihypertensive (lowers blood pressure) activities are being adapted for use with milk and dairy products and to identify the exact compounds that are responsible for the biological activities (Objective 1). The results of this study will provide a quantitative measure of these biological activities in milk from different farming systems and will give insight into ways to increase the concentrations of these compounds in dairy foods to benefit the dietary and health needs of American consumers.
Guo, L., Van Hekken, D.L., Tomasula, P.M., Shieh, J.J., Tunick, M.H. 2011. Effect of salt on the chemical, functional, and rheological properties of Queso Fresco during storage. International Dairy Journal. 21:352-357. Renye Jr, J.A., Somkuti, G.A., Van Hekken, D.L., Guerrero, P.V. 2011. Characterization of microflora in Mexican Chihuahua cheese. Journal of Dairy Science. 94:3311-3315. Tunick, M.H. 2010. Activation energy measurements in rheological analysis of cheese. International Dairy Journal. 20:680:685. Tunick, M.H. 2010. Milk lipids. In: Sikorski, Z.E. and Kolakowska, A., Editors. Chemical, Biological, and Functional Aspects of Food Lipids. 2nd edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 313-325. Tunick, M.H., Van Hekken, D.L. 2010. Rheology and texture of Queso Fresco cheeses made from raw and pasteurized milk. Journal of Food Quality. 33:204-215. Tunick, M.H. 2010. Food texture analysis in the 21st century. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. DOI: 10/1021/jf/02/994. Tunick, M.H. 2010. Dynamic rheology of food protein networks. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. DOI: 10.10.21/jf10/6237. Paul, M., Van Hekken, D.L. 2011. Assessing antihypertensive activity in native and model queso fresco cheese. Journal of Dairy Science. 94(5):2280-2284.