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ARS Home » Plains Area » Fort Collins, Colorado » Center for Agricultural Resources Research » Plant and Animal Genetic Resources Preservation » Research » Research Project #433404

Research Project: National Animal Germplasm Program

Location: Plant and Animal Genetic Resources Preservation

Project Number: 3012-31000-006-00-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated

Start Date: Aug 29, 2017
End Date: Aug 28, 2022

Objective:
Objective 1: Build, secure, manage, and facilitate the use of the animal genetic resource collection. Sub-objective 1A: Operate species committees to advise NAGP on collection development and use. Sub-objective 1B: Targeted acquisition of animals for breeds already in the collection based upon quantitative or molecular genetic analysis, number of animals and germplasm in the collection. Sub-objective 1C: Acquire samples from breeds not presently in the collection or with limited numbers of animals and samples and minor species (yak, water buffalo or bison). Sub-objective 1D: Engagement with other countries through the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources. Objective 2: Development and implementation of the publically accessible Animal-GRIN V2 database. Sub-objective 2A: Redesign and develop public facing webpages, perform necessary software upgrades and increase user friendliness of the genomic component of Animal-GRIN. Sub-objective 2B: Design GIS interface with Animal-GRIN. Objective 3: Characterize genetic diversity to guide collection development and increase its utility. Sub-objective 3A: Use quantitative and/or molecular approaches to evaluate and compare genetic variability within and among livestock populations and the collection. Specifically focusing upon: using Yorkshire and Duroc compare in-situ vs. collection genetic diversity; extend molecular characterization of goat breeds; and initiate molecular characterization of water buffalo. Sub-objective 3B: Combine genomic and production system parameters into a GIS format to assist in making collection decisions as they relate to production systems and climate change. a. Evaluate genetic diversity of oysters in relation to environmental factors. b. Gradients of allele frequency for loci associated with geographic regions. Objective 4: Develop and refine cryopreservation technologies enabling efficient germplasm collection, evaluation, and utilization by gene banks and stakeholders. Sub-objective 4A: Establish assays using flow cytometry and CASA to evaluate sperm quality. Sub-objective 4B: Create an inexpensive device and accompanying methods for vitrification of oocytes in bulk. Sub-objective 4C: Develop quality control standards and best practices for germplasm repositories.

Approach:
Genetic resources underpin the livestock sectors ability to improve productivity and contribute to global food security and economic well-being of rural America. Despite the importance of genetic resources there continues to be a contraction of genetic variability nationally and internationally. Furthermore, genetic resources will likely become more contentious under the Convention on Biological Diversity and its Nagoya Protocol. Developing secure collections of germplasm and tissue from US livestock breeds and associated populations is a mechanism to safeguard and promote US interests. To date substantial amounts of genetic resources and information have been curated. Importantly, large numbers of animals in the collection have been used by industry and researchers for a variety of purposes. However, more work is needed to curate germplasm from livestock populations, understand their genetic diversity, enhance effective mechanisms for cryopreservation, and to make the collection available to a wide array of stakeholders and customers via a robust user friendly information system. Steps to achieve such goals are detailed in this project plan. At the end of this project cycle it is anticipated that the germplasm collection will be more robust, better methods and tools will have been developed for collecting, analyzing and utilizing genetic resources.