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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Stoneville, Mississippi » Crop Production Systems Research » Research » Research Project #439297

Research Project: Weed Biology and Development of Improved Management Technologies for Invasive and Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Location: Crop Production Systems Research

Project Number: 6066-21000-061-00-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated

Start Date: Oct 13, 2020
End Date: Oct 12, 2025

Objective:
1. Determine differences in seed biology and fitness characteristics, such as competitiveness, photosynthetic capacity, responses to stress, and other growth- related factors of herbicide-susceptible versus herbicide-resistant weed biotypes. 1A. Determine differences in fitness characteristics, such as competitiveness, photosynthetic capacity, and responses to stress factors in herbicide-susceptible versus herbicide-resistant weed biotypes. 1B. Determine differences in fitness characteristics, such as competitiveness and responses to stress factors in herbicide-susceptible versus herbicide-resistant weed biotypes. 1C. Determine differences in fitness characteristics, photosynthetic capacity, and responses to stress factors in herbicide-susceptible versus herbicide-resistant weed biotypes. 1D. Comparison of whole-plant physiological processes of herbicide resistant weed populations with corresponding susceptible populations. 1E. Comparison and characterization of pigment contents and antioxidant capacities of red and green biotypes of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth plants and their responses to selected herbicides and a bioherbicide. 2. Discover and characterize patterns of herbicide resistance in weed populations, elucidate underlying physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms for use in identifying unique biological features that define their “weediness”, and explore their utility for developing control strategies. 2A. Discover and characterize patterns of herbicide resistance in weed populations. 2B. Elucidate underlying physiological, biochemical, molecular mechanisms of resistance to herbicides in weed populations where the level and nature of resistance is known. 2C. Discover and develop new approaches to weed control based on development of molecular herbicides specifically targeting our most troublesome weeds. 3. Identify key additive and/or synergistic interactions of combinations of chemicals, natural products and/or plant pathogens with herbicides to manage or control herbicide resistant weeds. 4. Evaluate for efficacy novel herbicide drift management and application techniques, emerging commercial herbicide or herbicide resistant crop technologies, and weed control methods such as microwave and steam. 4A. Evaluation of a novel fluorescent compound for measuring herbicide drift. 4B. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology for detection and management of herbicide-resistant weed populations and herbicide drift issues. 4C. Evaluation of emerging commercial herbicide and or herbicide resistant crop technologies. 4D. Evaluate the efficacy of microwave weed control methods.

Approach:
The overall project goal is to discover basic and practical knowledge of the occurrence, distribution, mechanism of resistance and management of weeds that are difficult to control or that have evolved resistance to one or to multiple herbicides. This broad-scope approach will lead to more effective weed control methods and novel weed control management practices. The development of new weed management tools, aided by knowledge of resistance mechanisms and weed biology will advance the development of sustainable practices for early detection and management of weeds and facilitate the development of strategies to provide more efficacious weed control via integrated use of chemical, mechanical, biological and cultural methods. Through basic analyses, assays and bioassays of whole plants and plant tissues from laboratory, greenhouse and field experiments will determine major differences in resistant versus susceptible weed biotypes. Subsequent biochemical, genetic, proteomic, immunochemical and radiological studies will identify and characterize specific site differences in herbicide resistant and sensitive weed biotypes within species. Experiments on the development of novel mechanical weed control methods and weed control using bioherbicides will provide important results that could substantially lower the amount of herbicide usage. The knowledge generated from these experiments will provide a greater understanding of the biochemistry, physiology and genetics of resistance mechanisms and provide insight for recommendations that will promote efficacious and sustainable weed control coupled with more efficient and economic crop production with reduced herbicide usage and impact on the environment.