Location: Southeast Watershed Research2021 Annual Report
1. Assess spatial and temporal distribution of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) and whitefly species and their natural enemies relative to environmental and ecological factors in cropping systems and develop a model that will guide decisions on pest management. [NP304, C3, PS3A, 3B and 3C] 1.A. Determine the spatial and temporal distribution of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci relative to environmental factors within cotton and peanut fields. 1.B. Utilize inoculation of entomopathogenic nematodes or the selective insecticides pyriproxyfen and buprofezin to precision manage this pest. 1.C. Model spatial and temporal distribution of BMSB and indigenous stink bugs and their natural enemies in row crop and orchard farmscapes and nearby non-crop hosts in woodlands in the southeastern USA. 2. Evaluate parasitism and predation of BMSB and indigenous stink bugs by parasitoids and predators in crop and non-crop habitats. [NP304, C3, PS3A, 3B and 3C] 2.A. Assess parasitism and predation of BMSB and indigenous stink bugs by parasitoids and predators in orchard, vineyard, vegetable, and row crop farmscapes and non-crop hosts in nearby woodlands in the southeastern USA. 2.B. Develop floral habitat to enhance biological control of BMSB and indigenous stink bugs in farmscapes. 3. Develop optimal native wildflower habitat near crop fields for provisioning of resources and refuge sites that increase pollinator abundance, diversity and pollination of nearby crops, such as initially in cotton and peanut, with potential applications to other pollinator-dependent crops such as watermelon. [NP304, C3, PS3A, 3B and 3C] 3.A. Determine the abundance, diversity and potential for crop pollination of wild bee pollinators in cotton and peanut adjacent to established wildflower buffers after increasing floral species, color and morphology in the buffer.
The spatial and temporal distribution of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci relative to environmental factors (e.g. topographic, edaphic, plant height and canopy width) will be assessed at 32 sites within a 47ha georeferenced cotton field. At these sites we test the effects of inoculation of entomopathogenic nematodes and biopesticides alone and together to precision manage this pest. The spatiotemporal patterns of indigenous and brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys parasitism and predation rates as well as incorporation of site-specific floral species as parasitoid and predator habitat will be assessed in 2-3 orchards and 2-4 row crops. Evaluation of parasitism and predation of BMSB and indigenous stink bugs will be assessed using sentinel egg masses deployed in woodland on non-crop hosts and 2-3 orchards, 2-3 blueberry, apple, plum, peach, and pecan orchards, 2-3 grape vineyards, 2-3 vegetable farms, and 2-3 row crop farms. abundance, diversity and potential for crop pollination of wild bee pollinators using blue vane bee traps in 8 cotton plots and 8 peanut plots adjacent to wildflower buffers containing Gaillardia pulchella, Rudbeckia hirta and Monarda citriodora and Lupinus perennis flowers to the buffer and 8 cotton and 8 peanut plots that do not contain L. perennis.
The first year of a study by ARS scientists at Tifton, Georgia, to assess spatial and temporal distribution of BMSB in row crops in the farmscape and non-crop hosts in nearby woodlands collected has been completed (Objective 1.C). The first year of a study to assess spatial and temporal spatial and temporal biocontrol of sentinel and wild BMSB eggs has been completed by ARS scientists at Tifton, Georgia (Objective 2.A).
1. The invasive brown marmorated stink bug. ARS scientists at Tifton, Georgia, believe the invasive brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) is a serious pest of row, ornamental, orchard, and vegetable crops in the United States and Europe. Field surveys to monitor the status of stink bug natural enemies in North America and Europe have detected the presence of the Asian hyperparasitoid Acroclisoides sinicus. ARS scientists at Tifton, Georgia, suggest because hyperparasitoids attack the natural enemies of pests rather than the pests themselves, the recently established A. sinicus populations could eventually threaten the biological control of invasive and native stink bugs by reducing the impact of their natural enemies. Laboratory colonies of the hyperparasitoid were established by ARS scientists at Tifton, Georgia, from specimens collected in Europe and the United States to investigate the biology of this species. This information will allow ARS scientists at Tifton, Georgia, to evaluate the potential spread and impact of the hyperparasitoid.
2. In the southeastern USA, two stink bugs, the brown stink bug and the dusky stink bug are commonly found near peach orchards. ARS scientists at Tifton, Georgia, suggest in the southeastern USA, two stink bugs, the brown stink bug and the dusky stink bug are commonly found near peach orchards. But whether they attack and eat peaches within an orchard may depend on the time of year that the fruits ripen and whether or not there is favored habitat next to a particular orchard. ARS scientists at Tifton, Georgia, and the University of Georgia found large numbers of the brown stink bug in peaches. This stink bug was also commonly found in planted pine and pecan trees next to orchards. The dusky stink bug was rarely found in peaches and appeared to instead prefer woodland habitat. For peach growers, this means that management strategies aimed at controlling stink bugs may need to occur both on the peach trees as well as in other habitat such as pine and pecan next to orchards.
3. Understanding spatial variability of crop pests. Precision agriculture (PA) is the application of management solutions only when and where needed instead of on whole fields. However, knowledge on why crop pests aggregate in different parts of a field during different times is limited. ARS researchers at Tifton, Georgia, along with researchers from the University of Georgia found that numbers of pest insects and their natural enemies shifted in relation to environmental conditions across 81 locations within a field of the perennial biofuel feedstock grass, Miscanthus. Results showed that pest numbers increased at higher wind speeds but decreased in parts of the field having higher elevation, higher soil silt and sand content, and greater field greenness. ARS scientists at Tifton, Georgia, determined that documenting patterns of pest responses to environmental factors at fine space and time scales has the potential to inform and improve PA decisions that reduce damage to beneficial insects.
Cottrell, T.E., Balusu, R.R., Vinson, E., Wilkins, B., Fadamiro, H.Y., Tillman, P.G. 2020. Effect of trap color and residual attraction of a pheromone lure for monitoring stink bugs (hemiptera: pentatomidae). Journal of Entomological Science. 55/437-447. https://doi.org/10.18474/0749-8004-55.4.437.
Olson, D.M., Tillman, P.G., Toews, M. 2021. Biopesticide and parasitoid effects on Megacopta cribraria life stage density and egg parasitism in soybean. Journal of Entomological Science. 56(2):272–277.
Grabarczyk, E.E., Olson, D.M., Tillman, P.G., Hodges, A.C., Hodges, G., Horton, D.L., Cottrell, T.E. 2021. Spatiotemporal distribution of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in peach orchards and surronding habitat. Florida Entomologist. Vol. 104, No. 1 (March 2021).
Giovannini, L., Sabbatini-Peverieri, G., Tillman, P.G., Hoelmer, K.A., Roversi, P. 2021. Reproductive and developmental biology of Acroclisoides sinicus, a hyperparasitoid of scelionid parasitoids. BMC Biology. 10(3): 229. https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvaa124.
Coffin, A.W., Olson, D.M., Seymour, L., Bosch, D.D., Schmidt, J.M., Strickland, T.C. 2021. Responses to environmental variability by herbivorous insects and their natural enemies within a bioenergy crop, Miscanthus x giganteus. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246855.