Location: Sugarbeet and Potato Research2021 Annual Report
Objective 1: Develop novel techniques to evaluate pulse crop properties such as water holding capacity, starch pasting quality, protein extractability, and mixing characteristics with cereals; discover high-throughput assays to measure these characteristics and develop an efficient service lab to provide these services to breeders. (NP306, C1, PS 1A and 1B). Objective 2: Develop novel techniques for incorporating pulse ingredients into bread recipes to assess dough and bread quality parameters such as milling quality, dough strength, baking qualities, and density, and develop a service lab to help breeders incorporate these traits into new pulse varieties. (NP 306, C1, PS 1A and 1B). Objective 3: In collaboration with breeders, determine the impact and variability induced by breeding and processing on the nutritional quality (proximates, micronutrients, selected other nutrients) of pulse foods. (NP 301, C1, PS 1A and 1B; NP 107, C1, PS 1A). Objective 4: Develop knowledge for incorporating pulse ingredients into novel food applications (e.g., beverages, dairy products, meat analogues), identify techniques for measuring properties of pulses to enable development of ‘healthy’-food applications, and provide support for breeders to incorporate these traits into new pulse varieties (NP 306, C1, PS 1A and 1B).
Facilities and protocols will be established to study the functional properties of whole and fractionated pulse crop ingredients that would be relevant to food industry applications. Research will be conducted to understand how pulse ingredients can be incorporated into bread recipes (at different inclusion percentages) to assess dough and bread quality parameters. These will include milling quality, dough strength (mixograph measurements), baking qualities (loaf height, color, crust strength, size of air pockets, and texture of slices), density, etc. Methods will also be established to conduct compositional analyses on different pulse varieties, breeding materials, and pulse fractions from these germplasm sources. Research will be conducted to develop high-throughput assays for functional and compositional traits. The Category 1 scientist and staff will establish a Pulse Quality Service laboratory with standardized procedures for accepting samples, generating data, and releasing information to breeders and other pulse scientists to help develop pulse lines that might be used as ingredients for bread or other pulse-based products.
The Pulse Crop Quality Laboratory was established in 2020 to 1) develop accurate and efficient laboratory methods for testing end-use qualities of pulses; 2) identify biochemical, physical, and genetic factors associated with pulse crop end-use qualities; 3) work with public pulse breeders to enhance germplasm and cultivar development for food production in milling, baking, pasta processing, beverages, and meat analogs; and 4) develop new processes and identify commercially available ways to add value to pulses. Initial funding was provided to hire a Category 1 research scientist and a Category 4 support scientist. Additional funds were received in Fiscal Year (FY) 2021 to hire a second Category 1 scientist. Progress was made on developing a position description for a Category 1 Food Technologist. Design work is underway to remodel space in our Biosciences Research Laboratory to house the new research laboratory. Research progress in FY 2021 involved a Kansas State University cooperator who was funded through a Non-Assistance Cooperative Agreement to examine bread-making performances of whole wheat flour fortified with the pulse flours. These studies are being conducted to develop methods that will be established as a standard measurement for pulse breeders. Breads containing different types (yellow pea, green pea, red lentil, and chickpea) and amounts (0, 5, 15, and 25%) of whole pulse flours (course) were baked and analyzed according to American Association of Cereal Chemists’ standard methods. Adding up to 15% of course yellow pea flour did not obviously affect the bread volume, structure, or texture. Green pea flour or red lentil flour was incorporated up to 25% to measure bread specific volume. Yellow pea flour of different particle sizes was also studied to determine the effects on dough and baking properties.