Location: Cereal Crops Research2022 Annual Report
Objective 1: Resolve changes in analytical methods (liquid chromatography, and near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopy) to rapidly evaluate phenotypic traits of hard spring wheat, durum, and oat elite cultivars. Sub-Objectives: 1.A. Improve the characterization of polymeric proteins in hard spring wheat and durum. 1.B. Improve liquid chromatography to characterize gliadin proteins in hard spring wheat and durum. 1.C. Develop an improved liquid chromatography procedure to characterize proteins in oat. 1.D. Develop near infrared and mid infrared models to rapidly predict quality traits in hard spring wheat, durum, and oat. Objective 2: Evaluate and report the milling (processing and intrinsic end-use quality) parameters of hard spring wheat, durum, and oat commercially viable cultivars as part of a Congressionally-designated direct mission of service (non-hypothesis driven). Sub-Objectives: 2.A. Identify and evaluate processing and intrinsic end-use quality traits of experimental hard spring and durum wheat lines. 2.B. Identify and evaluate biochemical and processing quality traits of experimental oat lines.
High quality grains are in demand for both domestic and international agricultural markets. The Hard Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory will evaluate processing and end-use quality traits of breeders’ experimental lines of wheat and oat relative to physical and biochemical attributes and genetic and environmental influences. This research is important to identify wheat lines that are of superior milling, baking, and processing quality before they are considered for commercial release. Since large numbers of samples need to be evaluated in a limited time frame in a plant breeding program, it is important to rapidly identify wheat and oat lines that are of superior processing and end-product quality. Research will be conducted to develop improved or innovative analytical methods that can rapidly characterize quality traits for hard spring wheat, durum, and oat. Specifically, research will be performed to resolve changes in liquid chromatography to rapidly characterize proteins that are important factors influencing processing and end-product quality. Research will also be conducted to improve prediction of quality traits using Fourier transform near infrared and mid-infrared spectroscopy. Machine learning, a new calibration method, will also be examined to calibrate prediction models of quality traits. Ultimately, the value of this research lies in its potential to enhance competitiveness of U.S. hard spring wheat, durum, and oat in domestic and international trade, increasing their market value.
Sub-Objective 1.A. In wheat, individual proteins interact to form aggregates of proteins called polymeric proteins. The protein aggregates have significant associations with gluten functional quality in wheat. Approximately 550 durum wheat samples were analyzed for the protein aggregates using complex chemical techniques. The analytical data will be further processed to determine both the mass and average size of the protein aggregates and their associations with durum wheat quality traits such as pasta-making quality characteristics. Sub-Objective 1.B. Gliadin proteins are a major part of the protein composition of wheat and are needed for gluten functionality in wheat processing and end-product making. Approximately 400 hard red spring wheat samples were analyzed for gliadin proteins using a technique called liquid chromatography. The gliadin protein analysis is being continued for approximately 550 durum wheat samples. The data sets will be used to establish association between gliadin protein composition and functionality of gluten in bread-making and pasta-making. Sub-Objective 1.C. Oat globulin is the major storage protein fraction composing about 70-80% of the total proteins in oat. An analytical procedure of oat globulins was established using a method called size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography. This procedure will improve the rapidity and resolution of analysis of oat globulins and contribute to screening of oat lines based on protein composition. Sub-Objective 1.D. Absorption values of near infrared and midinfrared light were measured for the spring and durum wheat and oat grain and flour samples used in this project. The research will be continued to investigate if the absorption data can be used to rapidly predict wheat and oat quality characteristics. Sub-objective 2A. Approximately 3,400 experimental lines and cultivars of hard red spring and durum wheat were evaluated. Samples were submitted by private and public wheat breeders involved in wheat germplasm improvement and by scientists involved in gene mapping to identify quantitative trait loci associated with end-use quality traits. Over 40 different tests related to wheat kernel characteristics, milling performance, and flour, semolina, dough, and baking quality were provided. Reports were submitted to wheat breeders and other federal, state, and private organizations with an interest in end-use quality. In cooperation with the Wheat Quality Council (WQC), eight experimental lines of hard spring wheat that were grown at six locations were evaluated along with the check cultivars ‘Linkert’ and ‘LCS Rebel’. Each line was tested for kernel, milling, flour, dough, and bread-baking quality traits. Baking quality test results from 12 independent public and private testing laboratories were coordinated, and data was analyzed. Results were published, presented, and discussed at the annual WQC meeting. Interactions with the WQC served as a means to obtain industry feedback on the milling and baking quality traits of advanced experimental wheat lines that are considered for release into commercial production. Sub-objective 2.B: Approximately 290 oat samples from the Spring Uniform Oat Performance Nursery were analyzed for important biochemical components such as protein, beta-glucan, total dietary fiber, and oil contents. Oat groat physical characteristics were also evaluated using a single kernel characterization system and an image analyzer. Technical support was provided to the North Dakota State University oat breeding program in the analysis of protein, beta-glucan, and oil content for approximately 500 oat samples.
1. Development of improved wheat germplasm. Wheat producers, milling and baking industries, and overseas customers require high standards in wheat quality to meet their evolving needs. ARS researchers at Fargo, North Dakota, contributed wheat end-use quality data that helped lead to the development of improved wheat germplasm and subsequent release of new cultivars of hard red spring and durum wheat for commercial production. Specifically, this work contributed to the release of two hard red spring wheat cultivars (‘Ascend-SD’ from South Dakota State University and MN-Rothsay from the University of Minnesota) and three durum wheat cultivars (‘MT Raska’ and ‘MT Blackbeard’ from Montana State University and ‘ND-Stanley’ from North Dakota State University) in 2022. These cultivars were released for their good yield potential, disease resistance, and end-use quality.
2. Identification of suitable experimental whole wheat flour bread-making test. An experimental bread-making test is essential in the evaluation of wheat flour samples for processing and end-product quality. However, no extensive research has been performed to identify an experimental bread-making method that was suitable to evaluate whole-wheat bread-making quality for hard red spring wheat. Therefore, ARS researchers in Fargo, North Dakota, examined different types of bread-making methods. The result indicated that a procedure called straight-dough method was quite useful to evaluate whole-wheat bread-making quality for diverse hard spring wheat cultivars grown at various locations. The use of this new method will help in the evaluation of hard red spring wheat end-use quality in plant breeding programs and ultimately will benefit the wheat baking industry.
Rahman, M., Ohm, J., Simsek, S. 2022. Clean-label breadmaking: Size exclusion HPLC analysis of proteins in dough supplemented with additives vs hard red spring wheat flour. Journal of Cereal Science. 104. Article 103426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2022.103426.
Khalid, K.H., Ohm, J., Simsek, S. 2022. Influence of bread-making method, genotype, and growing location on whole-wheat bread quality in hard red spring wheat. Cereal Chemistry. 99:467-481. https://doi.org/10.1002/cche.10509.
Vatansever, S., Ohm, J., Simsek, S., Hall, C. 2022. A novel approach: Supercritical carbon dioxide + ethanol extraction to improve techno-functionalities of pea protein isolate. Cereal Chemistry. 99:130-143. https://doi.org/10.1002/cche.10489.
Jin, Z., Lan, Y., Gillespie, J., Ohm, J., Chen, B., Schwartz, P. 2022. Physicochemical composition, fermentable sugars, free amino acids, phenolics, and minerals in brewers' spent grains obtained from craft brewing operations. Journal of Cereal Science. 104. Article 103413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2022.103413.
Choe, U., Osorno, J.M., Ohm, J., Chen, B., Rao, J. 2022. Modification of physicochemical, functional properties, and digestibility of macronutrients in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) flours by different thermally treated whole seeds. Food Chemistry. 382. Article 132570. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132570.