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ARS Home » Southeast Area » New Orleans, Louisiana » Southern Regional Research Center » Commodity Utilization Research » Research » Research Project #437945

Research Project: Physical Refining of Cottonseed Oils from Glandless Seed

Location: Commodity Utilization Research

Project Number: 6054-41000-103-17-R
Project Type: Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement

Start Date: Jan 1, 2020
End Date: Dec 31, 2020

Objective:
The objectives of this project are to (1) conduct a bulk segregant genetic analysis of a cross between two high oleic phenotypic plant lines (2) sort seeds of ultra-low gossypol plants to identify plants with <450 ppm total seed gossypol levels (3) characterize the phenolic and phytosterol minor components of glandless cottonseed oil (4) study the influence of relative humidity and seed moisture on the fracture resistance of cottonseed and (5) measure the fatty acid profiles of current commercial seed samples to test for their influence on germination and seedling vigor.

Approach:
For Objective 1, DNA will be extracted from a series of first generation plant crosses. The DNA will be sequenced and evaluated for differences that should be related to the high oleate trait. For Objective 2, seeds will be hand dissected and evaluated visually for glanding. The embryo halves of the seed with low glanding will be planted and grown to maturity. The bolls of these plants will be self-pollinated, and the gossypol levels in the resulting seeds will be evaluated. Also, a series of seeds will be planted and the initial cotyledon leaves will be evaluated for glanding. To evaluate phenolic compounds (Objective 3), aqueous alcohol extracts of cottonseed oils (from glandless seeds) will be made and the resulting extracts analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography for phenolic compounds. To study the effects of relative humidity on seed hardness (Objective 4), seeds of different varieties will be stored in desiccator over different salt solutions for a month, then analyzed by compression testing with an Instron material tester. The data will be evaluated statistically to see if reduced humidity is better able to discriminate differences in the hull strength among seed types. To test if fatty acid profiles have an influence on seed germination, a series of commercial seed samples will be extracted to recover oil, then methylated to form fatty acid methyl esters that will be analyzed by gas chromatography.