Location: Children's Nutrition Research Center2019 Annual Report
Objective 1: Investigate the effect of adiposity, adipokine dysregulation (the balance of circulating anti-inflammatory vs. proinflammatory factors), insulin resistance and vitamin D concentrations on bone microarchitecture (cortical porosity, trabecular thickness), bone biomarkers and endothelial function in youth with and without abnormalities in glucose metabolism. Objective 2: Evaluate the effect of high dose vitamin D therapy in a 6-month randomized controlled trial design on change in bone microarchitecture, restoration of bone biomarkers balance and endothelial function in youth. Objective 3: In two groups of 5-year old boys and girls who are either habitual consumers or non-consumers of milk and dairy (M&D) foods, we will determine anthropometry and body composition, total dietary energy intake, total energy expenditure, energy balance, biomarkers of cardiovascular health and early risk factors for Type 2 diabetes. Repeat these measurements every year for 4 years until the children are 10 years old.
The long-term objective of this project is to provide an enhanced understanding of how altered bone metabolism in the childhood years contributes to long-term skeletal health and may play a role in glucose metabolism and cardiovascular health in obese children by examining the evolution of risk factors and biomarkers of bone health early in the course of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Specifically, we will investigate the effect of adiposity, adipokine dysregulation, insulin resistance and vitamin D concentrations on bone microarchitecture, bone biomarkers and vascular health in youth with and without abnormalities in glucose metabolism. Given the importance of vitamin D to bone mineralization and a host of metabolic functions, we will also examine whether restoration of vitamin D sufficiency, in a randomized placebo controlled study design, has a positive effect on bone microarchitecture, bone biomarkers and endothelial function. Finally, milk and dairy (M&D) products made from milk, except butter foods are the most important food groups for young children’s growth and development, and bone health. Yet, their use as a healthy food for children has been questioned because of the belief that their high fat content may contribute to excessive weight gain. Another objective of this project aims to investigate the effect of habitual M&D foods’ consumption on energy balance and whether they also have a protective effect against early cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Overall this project will provide an enhanced understanding of how altered bone metabolism may contribute to long-term skeletal health and play a role in glucose metabolism and cardiovascular health in obese children. It will also provide evidence that habitually consuming M&D foods protect children against obesity and cardiometabolic disease.
This is the first report for this new project which just began in March 2019 and continues research from the previous project, 3092-51000-062-30S, "Consequences of Maternal Obesity and Obesity in Young Children". Please see the report for the previous project for additional information. Since this project was only recently certified for Objectives 1 and 2, we are in the process of obtaining the Institutional Review Board of Baylor College of Medicine approval, as well as training of staff and nurses to initiate the study. For Objective 3, this objective has not started as yet because we are also waiting for ethical approval from the Institutional Review Board of Baylor College of Medicine to start interviewing and recruiting volunteers into the study.