Location: Children's Nutrition Research Center2019 Annual Report
Objective 1: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2001-2014 and later releases) will be used to identify diet-related risk factors for obesity, and other health outcomes in children, adolescents, and adults specifically: Objective 1A: Identify eating patterns in children, adolescents and adults by gender and ethnicity, Objective 1B: Examine the association between eating patterns and obesity and related health risk factors, Objective 1C: Examine the impact of individual foods, nutrients, and food-specific patterns on obesity and health outcomes in children, adolescents, and adults. Objective 1D: Identify the impact of eating patterns on dietary intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality. Objective 2: Examine the rural-urban differences in and associations between food security status, food availability, participation in Federal nutrition assistance programs, dietary intake, and obesity among children across the different age groups, i.e., 2-5 years, 6-11 years, 12-15 years and 16-18 years old. Subobjective 2A: Examine the rural-urban differences in food security status (FSS) of children across the various age groups. Subobjective 2B: Determine the association of FSS with food availability and participation in federal nutrition assistance programs (FNAP) among children, based on rural-urban residence. Subobjective 2C: Determine the association of FSS with dietary intake and diet quality among children, based on rural-urban residence. Subobjective 2D: Determine the association between FSS and weight status of children, based on rural-urban residence. Objective 3: Determine the relationship between children’s physical activity, diet, sedentary behavior, and sleep, on summer weight gain in children and the impact of parenting on these behaviors using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Kindergarten 2011 Cohort, the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating study and others as appropriate. Subobjective 3A: Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions for obesity prevention and treatment among school-age children targeting the summer months when children are not in school, and assessing their impact on BMI, PA, diet, sedentary behavior, and sleep. Subobjective 3B: Determine the number and types of distinct categorical body mass index (BMI) percentile trajectories in a longitudinal early childhood cohort and examine whether children's physical activity (PA), diet, sedentary behavior, sleep timing, child care arrangements, and medication usage predict developmental trajectory membership in order to inform obesity prevention interventions. Subobjective 3C: Examine the relationship between adolescents' BMI, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep and diet during in-school and out-of-school times and the impact of parenting practices on these behaviors.
Today, an estimated 16% of US children and adolescents are overweight and 17% are obese, and the prevalence continues to rise. Obesity is the result of energy imbalance, and dietary behaviors associated with overweight need to be examined. The long-term objective of this project is to better understand eating patterns, impact of food security status, rural/urban differences, and seasonal differences in weight-related behaviors that influence obesity and other health risk factors in children, adolescents, and adults. Few attempts have been made to identify broader eating patterns and their association with weight status and other chronic disease risk factors. This project aims to identify eating patterns--in terms of food sources, food group consumption, and nutrient intake--that may be associated with obesity and other health risk factors in children, adolescents, and adults using extant datasets. Also, food insecurity is related to poor dietary behaviors that can lead to net positive energy balance and obesity. Thus, we aim to assess the impact of food security status on dietary intake and quality, food availability, participation in federal food assistance programs, and weight status based on rural/urban residence. Finally, we will examine other behavioral predictors of children’s weight gain (i.e., sleep, physical activity, sedentary behavior) using the school-summer paradigm. Together this research will facilitate a better understanding of how to behaviorally target interventions to prevent obesity during childhood.
For Objective 1, a cross-sectional study nationally representative of the U.S. population [National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014] was used and evaluated. One 24 hour dietary recall was used to assess dietary intake of 3156 adolescents aged 10–19 years. The "What We Eat in America" food category classification system was used for all foods consumed. Food sources of energy, added sugars, saturated fatty acid (SFA), sodium and total gram amount consumed were sample-weighted and ranked based on percentage contribution to intake of total amount. The three highest ranked food subgroup sources of total energy consumed were: sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB; 7.8 %); sweet bakery products (6.9 %); mixed dishes – pizza (6.6 %). Highest ranked food sources of total gram amount consumed were: plain water (34.8%); SSB (15.8%); milk (7.2%). Three highest ranked food sources of total sodium were: mixed dishes – pizza (8.7 %); mixed dishes –Mexican (6.7 %); cured meats/poultry (6.6 %). The three highest ranked food sources of SFA were: mixed dishes – pizza (9.1 %); sweet bakery products (8.3 %); mixed dishes – Mexican (7.9 %). Three highest ranked food sources of added sugars were: SSB (42.1 %); sweet bakery products (12.1 %); coffee and tea (7.6 %). For Objectives 2 and 3, we have started working on our project-related tasks. For Subobjective 2A, the NHANES datasets from 2011 and later have been obtained and the variables are currently being compiled to prepare for analysis. For Sub-objective 3A, the initial literature review and identification of articles for inclusion in the systematic review is complete. Data extraction is largely complete. The database is being prepared for analysis.
1. The transitioning diets from adolescents to adulthood. Adolescence is an important period of transition from childhood to adulthood with increased freedom of food choices, therefore an increased understanding of dietary intake during this period is important to align diets with the current dietary recommendations. Researchers in Houston, Texas reviewed data from thousands of adolescents aged 10–19 years participating in a cross-sectional study nationally representative of the U.S. population National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012 and 2013-2014. A large proportion of the total energy consumed was from energy-dense food groups (e.g. sugar sweetened beverages and sweet bakery products), but also from some major food sources contributing important vitamins and minerals (e.g. beef, cheese and milk). Awareness of food sources and nutrients to limit is critical to create/refine dietary strategies for various public health initiatives whose goal is improving adolescents' diet and optimally meeting their energy needs.