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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Tifton, Georgia » Crop Genetics and Breeding Research » Research » Research Project #434346

Research Project: Development of High-Yielding, High-Oleic Peanut Cultivars or Germplasm with Tolerance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

Location: Crop Genetics and Breeding Research

2023 Annual Report

Objective 1: Identify and characterize genes/Quantitative Trait Locus (QTLs) controlling resistance to major diseases (leaf spot, white mold, rhizoctonia limb rot, and nematodes) and drought stress, and use the information in marker-assisted breeding to develop improved high oleic (oleic/linoleic fatty acid ratio) peanut cultivars or germplasm with tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Sub-objective 1.A.: Conduct phenotypic evaluations of recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations to aid in the identification and characterization of genes/QTLs controlling resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Sub-objective 1.B.: Develop improved high oleic peanut cultivars or germplasm with resistance to nematodes and improved resistance to leaf spot. Sub-objective 1.C.: Develop high oleic peanut germplasm with improved drought tolerance and reduced preharvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC).

1.A. Sixteen structured recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations were developed using parents that were selected to maximize genetic diversity while meeting practical breeding objectives. In-depth phenotyping and genotyping of the populations will be conducted to identify genetic markers that can be used in peanut cultivar development. 1.B. Breeding populations will be developed by hybridizing cultivars with high oleic acid with high yielding breeding lines with resistance to the peanut root-knot nematode and/or resistance to leaf spot. Marker assisted selection will be utilized to select early generation progeny that are homozygous for the desired characteristics (high oleic, nematode resistance, and/or leaf spot resistance). Selections in later generations will focus on field resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus, high yield, and other agronomic characteristics. 1.C. Breeding populations will be developed by hybridizing high-yielding, high-oleic cultivars with sources of resistance to preharvest aflatoxin contamination and sources of resistance to drought. These populations will be evaluated under field conditions with drought and heat stress imposed by covering the entire test area with a mobile greenhouse. Aflatoxin contamination of the subsequent yield will be determined using the immunoaffinity column fluorometer method. Progeny will be selected based on relatively low aflatoxin and/or relatively high pod yields.

Progress Report
Crosses were made by ARS scientists at Tifton, Georgia, to combine resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses with high yield, good grade, and high oleic fatty acid content. Populations were advanced to a more inbred state when marker assisted selection (MAS) was used to identify individuals that will breed true for high oleic fatty acid content and/or nematode resistance and/or leaf spot resistance. Progeny from these individuals were then evaluated for resistance to other biotic and/or abiotic stresses, yield, and other agronomic characteristics. Potential varieties with high levels of resistance to leaf spot were evaluated under different fungicide spray regimes. Growers should be able to use these varieties to reduce their input costs and increase profitability. This project is terminating. During the life of the project three peanut cultivars were released. During that same time, nine peanut germplasm lines were registered and released. In addition, research conducted by this project resulted in the development of genetic markers for resistance to white mold, early leaf spot, late leaf spot and markers for pod and seed traits. Information on these markers has been published and implemented in breeding programs.

1. Development and release of new peanut cultivar, TifNV-HG. The objective of this work was to develop a cultivar that is an improvement in comparison to TifNV-High O/L. ARS scientists in Tifton, Georgia, along with collaborators made crosses to develop breeding populations. Marker assisted selection was then used to select for nematode resistance and the high oleic to linoleic (O/L) characteristic. TifNV-HG has a high level of resistance to both the peanut root-knot nematode and tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and has a high ratio of oleic to linoleic acid. When tested in fields without nematode pressure TIfNV-HG exhibited yields that were at least equivalent to other currently grown peanut varieties. When tested in fields with nematode pressure, TifNV-HG exhibited yield that was at least equivalent to other nematode resistant cultivars and significantly higher than susceptible cultivars. TifNV-HG exhibited higher grade in comparison to TifNV-High O/L.

Review Publications
Chaimala, A., Jogloy, S., Vorasoot, N., Holbrook Jr, C.C., Kvien, C.K. 2022. The responses for inulin content and inulin yield of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) genotypes and the associations of net photosynthethic rate withi inulin traits to different terminal drought durations in the late-rainy season. South African Journal of Botany. 151:277-287.
Holbrook Jr, C.C., Ozias-Akins, P., Chu, Y., Brenneman, T.B., Culbreath, A.K. 2023. Registration of 'TifNV-HG' Peanut. Journal of Plant Registrations. 2023;1-5.
Mahakosee, S., Jogloy, S., Vorasoot, N., Theerakulpisut, P., Toomsan, B., Holbrook Jr, C.C., Kvien, C.K., Banterng, P. 2022. Light interception and radiation use efficiency of three cassava genotypes with different plant types and seasonal variations. Agronomy. 12(11). Article 2888.
Gimode, D., Chu, Y., Holbrook Jr, C.C., Fonceka, D., Porter, W., Dobreva, I., Teare, B., Ruiz-Guman, H., Hays, D., Ozias-Akins, P. 2023. High-throughput canopy and below ground phenotyping of a set of peanut CSSLs detects lines with increased pod weight and foliar disease tolerance. Agronomy. 13(5). Article 1223.
Chaimala, A., Jogloy, S., Vorasoot, N., Holbrook Jr, C.C., Kvien, C.K. 2023. The roles of net photosynthesis rate and transpiration efficiency on economic yield of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) genotypes under different drought durations during the terminal growth stages. Agronomy. 13(7). Article 1882.
Tsai, Y., Brenneman, T.B., Holbrook Jr, C.C., Chu, Y., Ozias-Akins, P., Bertioli, D.J., Leal-Bertioli, S. 2023. Development of a greenhouse method to the evaluate peanut resistance to Athelia rolfsii. PhytoFrontiers. 1-27.
Chamberlin, K.D., Baldessari, J., Bennett, R., Clevenger, J.P., Holbrook Jr, C.C., Tallury, S.P., Chu, Y., Ozias-Akins, P., Conde, M.B., Payton, M.E. 2022. Identification of germplasm resistant to peanut smut. Peanut Science. 49(1):1-16.