Location: Plant Introduction Research2018 Annual Report
Objective 1: Efficiently and effectively acquire and maintain the safety, genetic integrity, health, and viability of priority maize, vegetable, oilseed, minor grain crop, medicinal, and ornamental genetic resources, and distribute them and associated information worldwide. Sub-objectives: 1A. Expand, regenerate and conserve collections of priority maize, vegetable, oilseed, minor grain crop, medicinal, and ornamental genetic resources. 1B. Enhance genetic integrity of genetic resources maintained. 1C. Backup accessions at second sites, increasing the proportion of accessions backed up to more than 83% of 2016 holdings. 1D. Distribute germplasm and associated information to support research objectives. 1E. Monitor accessions for viability and phytosanitary health to ensure availability of healthy propagules and to preserve their genetic integrity. 1F. Develop and/or refine diagnostic methods to detect seed-borne pathogens. Objective 2: Develop more effective genetic resource maintenance, evaluation, or characterization methods and apply them to maize, vegetable, oilseed, minor grain crop, medicinal, and ornamental genetic resources. Record and disseminate evaluation, characterization, and adaptation data via GRIN-Global (GG) and other data sources. Sub-objectives: 2A. Enhance capacities to increase collection availability. 2B. Evaluate crop collections for phenotypic, morphological, composition, and productivity related traits such as biotic/abiotic stress resistance and yield. 2C. Apply and utilize genetic marker technologies to better characterize key collections. 2D. Provide information and findings that facilitate germplasm utilization via GG, other data sources, and publications. Objective 3: With other National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) genebanks and Crop Germplasm Committees (CGCs), develop, update, document, and implement best management practices and Crop Vulnerability Statements (CVSs) for priority maize, vegetable, oilseed, minor grain crop, medicinal, and ornamental genetic resources and information management. Sub-objectives: 3A. Modify, document and implement best management practices, and share them publicly. 3B. Provide input for annual/periodic updates of CVSs. Objective 4: Continue to expand the capacity and capabilities of the GRIN-Global (GG) plant genetic resource (PGR) information management system to meet the needs of crop curators and genetic resource users, and to ensure smooth integration of its data with information from other sources, such as model organism databases (MODs). Sub-objectives: 4A. Cooperate with GG users and developer communities to identify and develop wizards and applications to improve system utility, information delivery, and genebank workflow efficiency. 4B. Provide technical leadership to the NPGS for GG evolution to meet genebank information and workflow needs.
Obj 1: Plant genetic resource (PGR) regeneration/management priorities are determined in response to PGR demand, external pressures such as stakeholder needs, or the status of resources, i.e. threatened or endangered, and inventory quantity, viability, and quality status. Genetic integrity will be assured through use of best management practices and monitoring to detect contamination. Seed lots will be backed up at the NCGRP in Ft. Collins, CO, and an international seed vault. Periodic testing to assess collection quality and health will assure their security, and new protocols will be developed. Quality PGR and associated information are distributed to support research objectives based on criteria which may govern their distribution or use. Seeds/plantings will be monitored for disease and assayed for pathogen identity, with phytosanitary precautions implemented at several points to preclude seedborne pathogens. New methods for detection of seed-borne pathogens will be evaluated and implemented. Obj 2: Collaborations with other NPGS site personnel or tropical nursery providers are required to grow certain accessions where they are adapted, including facilities that support quarantine grow-outs of maize originating from some countries. In-house facilities will be improved to handle accessions with challenging growth requirements. Phenology and basic morphological descriptors are captured during seasonal activities. High priority evaluation traits will be determined. Woody ornamental germplasm will be evaluated via the NC7 Ornamental Trial system to determine adaptation and survival across the North Central US. Evaluations will be conducted using established protocols, and findings published on the GRIN-Global website or suitable fora. Genetic marker technologies will be utilized to assess maize accession relationships. Sunflower genetic marker information will be assessed to determine whether valid associations can be made with habitat/geographic information, and used to determine how well crop wild relatives are represented in the collection. Obj 3: Best management practices for collection management and standard operating procedures that govern genebank workflows will be reviewed, modified, and documented periodically. Crop Germplasm Committee chairs and members will be provided information on the status of the collections and specific issues that threaten the security and/or availability and backup status of the collections, and opportunities to mitigate threats. Personnel will assist in development of Crop Vulnerability Statements. Obj 4: The capabilities of the GRIN-Global PGR information management system will be expanded to meet crop curator and genetic resource user needs. Wizards and applications to improve system utility, information delivery, and genebank workflow efficiency will be identified and developed. Improvements necessary to support system adoption will be made. Use of improved communications technologies will be facilitated. Interoperability of GRIN-Global with multiple information providers will be supported.
Planting occurred in Ames for all crops in a timely fashion, and seed increase activities are underway. Viability testing and distribution activities continue as scheduled. All planned acquisition/exploration activities scheduled for summer 2018 except one have been completed. A seed increase nursery contract was developed with CIMMYT (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, Texcoco, Mexico) and accessions of Andean highland maize landraces were planted at their high altitude location near Tolucca, Mexico in May-June, 2018. The PIRU's (Plant Introduction Research Unit) developer for the GRIN-Global System (Germplasm Resource Information Network) met with the developers from the international genebanks who have adopted GRIN-Global in Portugal in June, 2018. A thorough analysis of international and U.S. GRIN-Global development needs for enhancements and additional features and functionalities was discussed. Strategies and resource identification to accomplish priority needs will be an outcome of this workshop. This will advance evolution of the system, facilitating genebank workflows and information objectives, and ultimately extend the lifecycle of the system. The PIRU's developer has released multiple new versions of the GRIN-Global Curator Tool, utilized by genebank personnel, for testing and has submitted a version for software vulnerability scanning. Pending approval by the Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) the new Curator Tool will be made available to all U.S. National Plant Germplasm System users and to international GRIN-Global system adopters.