Location: Cereal Crops Research2019 Annual Report
Objective 1: Develop accurate and efficient laboratory methods to evaluate whole wheat milling and bread-making quality of hard spring wheat. Sub-Objectives: 1.A. Develop a whole wheat experimental milling procedure. 1.B. Develop and adapt mixograph techniques for the evaluation of whole wheat flour. 1.C. Identify variation in whole wheat milling and bread-making quality for hard spring wheat genotypes. Objective 2: Identify variation in biochemical components important to end-use quality and functionality, develop prediction models for those components, and evaluate their influence on whole wheat bread-making characteristics of hard spring wheat. Sub-Objectives: 2.A. Identify variation in protein molecular weight distribution (MWD) and its influence on whole wheat bread-making quality, and develop NIR calibration models of protein MWD parameters. 2.B. Identify variation in arabinoxylans and its influence on whole wheat bread-making quality, and develop an NIR prediction model. 2.C. Identify variations in phenolics and antioxidant activity potential in hard spring wheat lines. 2.D. Develop methods to rapidly and accurately predict phenolics and antioxidant activity potential in hard spring wheat using FT-NIR spectroscopy. 2.E. Evaluate the effect of processing on phenolics and antioxidant activity potential during bread-making. Objective 3: Identify and evaluate processing and intrinsic end-use quality traits of experimental lines of hard spring wheat, durum, and oat as part of a Congressionally-designed direct mission of service. - This Objective is EXEMPT from review because, by Legislative (Congressional) mandate, it is a direct mission of service guided and overseen by the Wheat Quality Council. Sub-Objectives: 3.A. Identify and evaluate processing and intrinsic end-use quality traits of experimental hard spring and durum wheat lines. 3.B. Evaluate quality traits of experimental oat lines. The new funds will be used to enhance two objectives: 1) Resolve changes in analytical methods (liquid chromatography, and near infrared and infrared spectroscopy) to rapidly evaluate phenotypic traits of elite oat cultivars and 2) Evaluate and report the milling (processing and intrinsic end-use quality) parameters of oat commercially viable cultivars as part of a Congressionally-designated direct mission of service (non-hypothesis driven). The new funds will be used to enhance two objectives: 1) Resolve changes in analytical methods (liquid chromatography, and near infrared and infrared spectroscopy) to rapidly evaluate phenotypic traits of elite hard spring wheat, and durum cultivars; and 2) Evaluate and report the milling (processing and intrinsic end-use quality) parameters of hard spring wheat and durum commercially viable cultivars as part of a Congressionally-designated direct mission of service (non-hypothesis driven).
The Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory will evaluate processing and end-use quality traits of breeders’ experimental lines of wheat relative to physical and biochemical attributes and genetic and environmental influences. This research is important to identify wheat lines that are of superior milling, baking, and processing quality before they are considered for commercial release. Ultimately, the value of this research lies in its potential to enhance international trade of U.S. wheat and reduce competition for overseas markets. Quality evaluation also will be performed for oat lines to increase market value of U.S. oats. Recently, demand for whole-wheat-based foods has been increasing due to well-known beneficial health effects. However, poor end-use quality of whole wheat flour is acknowledged as a problem in the baking industry. Research will be conducted to develop laboratory methods to evaluate whole wheat milling and bread-making quality, and will contribute to the rapid assessment of whole wheat bread-making quality. Research will be conducted to evaluate variation in proteins, arabinoxylans, phenolics, and antioxidant potential in hard spring wheat lines and to develop methods to rapidly predict these components. The role of these components in dough and bread-making properties will also be investigated. This research is important since these components are present in whole grains, mainly in the bran. The benefits of this research will be in the production of wheat germplasm that contains high levels of healthy components, as well as improved end-use quality for the production of whole wheat-based products.
Objective 1: Mixing characteristics are important since they are closely associated with function of wheat gluten that primarily influence breadmaking quality. Efforts have continued to improve the evaluation of mixing characteristics in hard red spring wheat. The third-year samples, which consisted of five hard red spring (HRS) wheat varieties grown at 4 locations for two years were milled and analyzed for mixing characteristics using a mixograph. The mixing profile data was modeled to non-linear equations. The model parameters will be investigated for their associations with breadmaking quality traits. This work directly relates to Sub-objective 1.B. Whole wheat bread-making quality characteristics will also be evaluated to identify the influence of growing environment and genotype. The information obtained from this research will help the evaluation of whole wheat bread-making quality in HRS wheat breeding programs. This work directly relates to Sub-objective 1.C. Objective 2: Protein and arabinoxylan are important biochemical components that influence breadmaking quality in wheat. However, few reports have been available on protein and arabinoxylan in relation to whole wheat breadmaking quality in hard spring wheat. Research is in progress to investigate variation of protein size distribution and arabinoxylan content and their associations with quality characteristics for hard red spring wheat. Analyses of protein and arabinoxylan are underway on the aforementioned 40 wheat samples. The information obtained from this research will be useful for the evaluation of whole wheat bread-making quality in HRS wheat breeding programs. This work directly relates to Sub-objective 2.A. and 2.B. Research is in progress to calibrate prediction models for wheat quality traits, protein size distribution parameters, and arabinoxylan content using near infrared technology. Near infrared spectra were collected from the third-year samples. The near infrared models will help to determine those parameters without using complex and time-consuming analytical procedures. The information obtained from this research will contribute to improving evaluation of whole wheat bread-making quality in HRS wheat breeding programs, and the milling and bread-making industries. This work directly relates to Sub-objective 2.A. and 2.B. Objective 3: The Hard Red Spring Wheat Quality Laboratory (WQL) evaluated and reported end-use quality traits on approximately 3600 samples of hard spring and durum wheat. Samples were submitted by private and public wheat breeders involved in wheat germplasm improvement and by scientists involved in gene mapping to identify quantitative trait loci associated with end-use quality traits. The WQL provided over 40 different tests related to wheat kernel characteristics, milling performance, and flour, semolina, dough, and baking quality. Reports were provided to wheat breeders and other federal, state, and private organizations with an interest in end-use quality. This work directly relates to Sub-objective 3A. In cooperation with the Wheat Quality Council (WQC), nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat that were grown at up to five locations were evaluated along with the check cultivar Glenn. The WQL tested each line for kernel, milling, flour, dough, and bread-baking quality traits, coordinated the baking quality test results from twelve independent public and private testing laboratories, and analyzed the data. Results were published, presented, and discussed at the annual WQC meeting. Interactions with the WQC serve as a mean to obtain industry feedback on the milling and baking quality traits of advanced experimental lines of wheat that are considered for release into commercial production. A 2017 variety survey showed that all of the top five hard spring wheat cultivars planted in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota were tested by the WQC program. This work directly relates to Sub-objective 3A. Oat groat samples (325 samples) from the Spring Uniform Oat Performance Nursery were analyzed for important biochemical components such as protein, beta-glucan, and oil content. Oat groat physical characteristics were obtained using a Single Kernel Characterization System. We also analyzed approximately 1000 samples, which were provided by the North Dakota State University Oat Breeding Program for protein, beta-glucan, and oil content using a near infrared analyzer. This work will aid the release of oat cultivars with improved quality traits (including nutritionally important biochemical components), increase the market value and consumption of U.S. oats, and benefit human health. This work directly relates to Sub-objective 3B. The near infrared (NIR) spectra were collected for 780 oat groat samples. The oat samples were also analyzed for beta-glucan that is an important nutritional component. The NIR spectra will be used to develop prediction models of beta-glucan in oat. The near infrared model will help to rapidly evaluate beta-glucan in oat without using complex and time-consuming wet chemical procedures in oat breeding programs. This work directly relates to Sub-objective 3B.
1. Development of improved wheat germplasm. Wheat producers, milling and baking industries, and overseas customers require high standards in the quality of wheat to meet their evolving needs. The ARS Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory at Fargo, North Dakota, contributed wheat end-use quality data that lead to the development of improved wheat germplasm and subsequent release of new cultivars of spring and durum wheat for commercial production. Specifically, this work contributed to the release of the hard spring wheat cultivar “MN-Washburn” by the University of Minnesota in 2019. “MN-Washburn was released for its high flour yield.
2. Identification of protein components important for gluten quality in waxy winter wheat. For the development of waxy (amylose-free) wheat cultivars which have improved gluten quality, information on the variation of protein composition would be highly useful. However, little data has been reported on protein composition for waxy wheat. ARS scientists at Fargo, North Dakota, performed research to identify important protein components that had significant associations with gluten quality in winter waxy wheat varieties. This information will be helpful in screening winter waxy wheat varieties that have favorable protein compositions, and consequently, acceptable gluten quality in wheat breeding programs. The improvement of gluten quality will increase the demand for and utilization of waxy wheats in the milling, baking and gluten production industries.
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