Location: Cereal Crops Research2016 Annual Report
Objective 1: Develop accurate and efficient laboratory methods to evaluate whole wheat milling and bread-making quality of hard spring wheat. Sub-Objectives: 1.A. Develop a whole wheat experimental milling procedure. 1.B. Develop and adapt mixograph techniques for the evaluation of whole wheat flour. 1.C. Identify variation in whole wheat milling and bread-making quality for hard spring wheat genotypes. Objective 2: Identify variation in biochemical components important to end-use quality and functionality, develop prediction models for those components, and evaluate their influence on whole wheat bread-making characteristics of hard spring wheat. Sub-Objectives: 2.A. Identify variation in protein molecular weight distribution (MWD) and its influence on whole wheat bread-making quality, and develop NIR calibration models of protein MWD parameters. 2.B. Identify variation in arabinoxylans and its influence on whole wheat bread-making quality, and develop an NIR prediction model. 2.C. Identify variations in phenolics and antioxidant activity potential in hard spring wheat lines. 2.D. Develop methods to rapidly and accurately predict phenolics and antioxidant activity potential in hard spring wheat using FT-NIR spectroscopy. 2.E. Evaluate the effect of processing on phenolics and antioxidant activity potential during bread-making. Objective 3: Identify and evaluate processing and intrinsic end-use quality traits of experimental lines of hard spring wheat, durum, and oat as part of a Congressionally-designed direct mission of service. - This Objective is EXEMPT from review because, by Legislative (Congressional) mandate, it is a direct mission of service guided and overseen by the Wheat Quality Council. Sub-Objectives: 3.A. Identify and evaluate processing and intrinsic end-use quality traits of experimental hard spring and durum wheat lines. 3.B. Evaluate quality traits of experimental oat lines.
The Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory will evaluate processing and end-use quality traits of breeders’ experimental lines of wheat relative to physical and biochemical attributes and genetic and environmental influences. This research is important to identify wheat lines that are of superior milling, baking, and processing quality before they are considered for commercial release. Ultimately, the value of this research lies in its potential to enhance international trade of U.S. wheat and reduce competition for overseas markets. Quality evaluation also will be performed for oat lines to increase market value of U.S. oats. Recently, demand for whole-wheat-based foods has been increasing due to well-known beneficial health effects. However, poor end-use quality of whole wheat flour is acknowledged as a problem in the baking industry. Research will be conducted to develop laboratory methods to evaluate whole wheat milling and bread-making quality, and will contribute to the rapid assessment of whole wheat bread-making quality. Research will be conducted to evaluate variation in proteins, arabinoxylans, phenolics, and antioxidant potential in hard spring wheat lines and to develop methods to rapidly predict these components. The role of these components in dough and bread-making properties will also be investigated. This research is important since these components are present in whole grains, mainly in the bran. The benefits of this research will be in the production of wheat germplasm that contains high levels of healthy components, as well as improved end-use quality for the production of whole wheat-based products.
Poor processing and eating quality of whole wheat flour is acknowledged as a problem in the baking industry. In whole wheat milling, flour particle size distribution needs to be controlled because it significantly affects whole wheat flour baking quality. Research was performed to determine optimal wheat tempering conditions for whole wheat milling of hard spring wheat. Wheat samples that had different levels of grain hardness were individually tested for milling quality at varying levels of grain tempering moisture content (7, 10, 13, and 16%) and conditioning time (1, 2, and 3 days). The milled samples were analyzed for quality characteristics that are important for whole wheat bread-making. The data obtained from this research will be statistically analyzed to determine an optimum wheat conditioning procedure for whole grain milling of hard spring wheat samples. This work directly relates to objective 1. Research is in progress to determine the usefulness of micro columns in SE-HPLC for further investigations into variation in whole wheat flour mixing and bread-making quality characteristics and their associations with important chemical components such as proteins and arabinoxylans for hard spring wheat. This work directly relates to objective 2. Since weather conditions affect grain appearance and chemical properties, investigation of the effect of environment on phenolics and antioxidant activity potential in hard spring wheat was initiated. Fifty genotypes from seven locations in the Northern Great Plains are currently being analyzed for phenolics and antioxidant activity. The information gained from this research will help wheat breeders in the region select genotypes with consistently high levels of phenolics and antioxidant activity potential for the production of whole wheat products with potential health benefits. This work directly relates to objective 2. Method development to rapidly predict phenolics and antioxidant activity potential using FT-NIR spectroscopy was initiated. NIR spectra on 100 hard spring wheat lines from Minnesota and South Dakota were collected. Wet chemistry analysis for total phenols and antioxidant activity potential is currently being conducted. The development of NIR calibration curves will be beneficial to wheat breeders to rapidly screen and select genotypes with high levels of phenolics and antioxidant activity potential. This work directly relates to objective 2. The Hard Red Spring Wheat Quality Laboratory (WQL) analyzed physical and biochemical quality traits on approximately 3700 samples of hard spring and durum wheat. Samples were submitted by private and public wheat breeders involved in wheat germplasm improvement and by scientists involved in gene mapping to identify quantitative trait loci associated with end-use quality traits. The WQL provided over 40 different test related to wheat kernel characteristics, milling performance, and flour, semolina, dough, and baking quality. This work directly relates to objective 3. In cooperation with the Wheat Quality Council (WQC), nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat that were grown at up to 5 locations were evaluated along with the check cultivars, Glenn and Bolles. The WQL tested each line for kernel, milling, flour, dough, and bread-baking quality traits, coordinated the baking quality test results from 13 independent public and private testing laboratories, and analyzed the data. Results were published, presented, and discussed at the annual WQC meeting. Interactions with the WQC serve as a means to obtain industry feedback on the milling and baking quality traits of advanced experimental lines of wheat that are considered for release into commercial production. A 2015 variety survey showed that all of the top five hard spring wheat cultivars planted in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota were tested by the WQC program. This work directly relates to objective 3. We evaluated important chemical components such as protein, beta-glucan, and oil content for oat groat samples that were provided by oat breeders. Oat groat samples that were analyzed included 120 samples from the Uniform Midseason Oat Performance Nursery, 24 samples from the Uniform Early Oat Performance Nursery, and 32 samples from the Uniform Winter Oat Nursery. This work will help the release of oat cultivars that have improved quality traits, including the nutritionally important biochemical components, and increase the market value and consumption of U.S. oats, as well as benefit human health. This work directly relates to objective 3. Despite the health benefits of bran in whole-wheat flour, bran tends to negatively impact end product quality in general. Effects of different bran components, namely lipid, phenolics (extractable and hydrolysable), and fiber, on whole wheat bread-making quality were investigated. Interestingly, bran fiber was identified as a single main factor that had highly significant impact on all the flour, dough, and baking parameters measured in this experiment. Specifically, presence of fiber in bread-making increased water absorption and decreased mixing stability. Overall, the influence of bran components on bread-making quality seemed very complex. The result of this study will be a helpful reference for further research to improve whole wheat bread quality. This work directly relates to objective 2. Research was performed to identify how quality characteristics change in relation to the year of cultivar release, and to determine the association between these characteristics and protein composition for historical and modern hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars. We analyzed milling, dough mixing, and bread-making characteristics for 30 HRS wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013. Thereafter, we determined the associations between quality characteristics and protein composition. Certain protein fractions were identified that appeared to contribute to the favorable dough mixing properties that are seen in modern HRS wheat cultivars. This information will be useful for improving dough mixing quality in HRS wheat breeding programs. This work directly relates to objective 3. Waxy (amylose-free) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a source of unique starch. Previous investigations have suggested waxy wheats possess weak gluten properties, and may not be suitable for commercial gluten extraction. In this research, fifty waxy wheat lines were used to determine to what extent gluten protein and other grain quality related traits might vary, and consequently, allow the development of waxy wheat with acceptable gluten properties. The results indicated that quality of the gluten varied widely among the waxy lines tested, and waxy lines that were not statistically different from the highest ranking control non-waxy cultivars were identified. These observations suggest that weak gluten is not a natural consequence of the waxy trait, and waxy cultivars with acceptable gluten properties can be developed. This work directly relates to objective 3. Intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium, IWG), possesses desirable agronomic traits, e.g., disease resistance, relatively large seed, and grain yield. As a perennial relative of wheat, IWG has good potential for development into a perennial grain crop. We identified protein fractions that are important for improvement of bread-making quality of IWG grain samples in previous research. We evaluated 200 IWG samples grown in Kansas and 105 samples from Minnesota for protein content and composition. These data will be useful for the evaluation of bread-making quality of IWG varieties and their future commercial application. This work directly relates to objective 3.
1. Development of improved wheat germplasm. Wheat producers, milling and baking industries, and overseas customers require high standards in the quality of wheat to meet their evolving needs. The Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory contributed wheat end-use quality data that helped lead to the development of improved wheat germplasm and subsequent release of new cultivars of spring and durum wheat for commercial production. Specifically, this work contributed to the release of two hard spring wheat cultivars, "Bolles" and "Shelly" by the University of Minnesota and two hard spring wheat cultivars "Boost" and "Surpass" by South Dakota State University, in 2015-2016.
Baasandorj, T., Ohm, J.-B., Simsek, S. 2015. Effect of dark, hard, and vitreous kernel content on protein molecular weight distribution and on milling and breadmaking quality characteristics for hard spring wheat samples from diverse growing regions. Cereal Chemistry. 92(6):570-577.
de la Pena, E., Ohm, J.-B., Simsek, S., Manthey, F.A. 2015. Physicochemical changes in nontraditional pasta during cooking. Cereal Chemistry. 92(6):578-587.
Hammed, A.M., Ozsisli, B., Ohm, J.-B., Simsek, S. 2015. Relationship between solvent retention capacity and protein molecular weight distribution, quality characteristics, and breadmaking functionality of hard red spring wheat flour. Cereal Chemistry. 92(5):466-474.
Zhang, X., Ohm, J.-B., Haring, S., Dehaan, L.R., Anderson, J.A. 2015. Towards the understanding of end-use quality in intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium): High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits, protein polymerization, and mixing characteristics. Journal of Cereal Science. 66:81-88.
Baasandorj, T., Ohm, J.-B., Simsek, S. 2016. Effects of kernel vitreousness and protein level on protein molecular weight distribution, milling quality, and breadmaking quality in hard red spring wheat. Cereal Chemistry. 93(4):426-434.
Simsek, H., Kasi, M., Ohm, J.-B., Murthy, S., Khan, E. 2016. Impact of solids retention time on dissolved organic nitrogen and its biodegradability in treated wastewater. Water Research. 92:44-51.
Simsek, S., Ohm, J.-B., Cariou, V., Mergoum, M. 2016. Effect of flour polymeric proteins on dough thermal properties and breadmaking characteristics for hard red spring wheat genotypes. Journal of Cereal Science. 68:164-171.