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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Albany, California » Western Regional Research Center » Healthy Processed Foods Research » Research » Research Project #428789

Research Project: Adding Value to Plant-Based Waste Materials through Development of Novel, Healthy Ingredients and Functional Foods

Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

2018 Annual Report

The overall goal of this research project is to make food production more sustainable by using food processing technologies to add value to the byproducts generated from the harvest of specialty crops and production of processed foods. We will focus on the following three objectives over the next five years: Objective 1: Increase the commercial value of plant-based, postharvest waste materials, high in dietary fiber and/or polyphenols (grape, berries, tomato, carrot, and olive pomace, olive leaves and water, mushroom byproducts), by reprocessing into healthful food ingredients. 1.1: Screen processing wastes for nutritional properties of the whole pomace, seeds, skins, and the extractable and nonextractable (high fiber) fractions using appropriate animal models. 1.2: Increase value by developing healthful ingredients with improved bioaccessibility to bioactive polyphenols by process treatments such as extrusion, thermal, chemical and enzymatic processing of the whole waste. Objective 2: Enable new, commercial functional foods from high protein–based waste materials (nuts, legumes, rice, fish). 2.1: Analyze nutrient content of processed farm waste (soybean, peanut, rice and salmon) for functional properties and nutritional quality of protein fraction. 2.2: Formulate and test high protein gluten free health promoting products for consumer acceptability. Objective 3: Enable value-added commercial applications of nanofibers from specialty crop waste materials to deliver bioactives in new functional foods. Objective 4: Increase the utilization of post-harvest waste materials by identifying and removing astringent and mineral components that detract from taste, quality, nutritional value and consumer acceptance.

Objective 1: Determine if processed food wastes or their components from regional fruit and vegetable food processing have health promoting properties by using animal models of obesity and related metabolic diseases to evaluate bioactivity. Animal models are necessary since many bioactive compounds are not absorbed directly but are mediated by gut bacteria. Some waste materials may require fractionation, for example seeds from peels, in order to concentrate bioactive components to a useful level. Bioavailability and bioactivity of more bioactive compounds such as polyphenolics and plant sterols may be increased by removing and modifying dietary fibers that block accessibility to enzymes and gut bacteria. Bioactive food wastes such as mushrooms with high vitamin D content will be processed into films or coatings. Objective 2: Develop new healthy and flavorful foods from high protein waste materials. Processing wastes from soybeans, peanuts, rice and salmon will be analyzed for protein composition and food related physico-chemical properties. The waste materials will be formulated into foods to increase protein content and improve protein quality. Waste ingredients are often high in insoluble fibers that reduce functionality and may require fractionation from fiber to improve useful properties. Objective 3: Develop blow spinning technology to efficiently produce natural nanofibers for controlled release applications and evaluate potential pulmonary toxicity effects of nanofibers in mice after intratracheal instillation of nanofibers. Using blow spinning processes nanofibers will be created from food ingredients such as gelatin, chitosan, and fruit and vegetable pomaces (grape, carrot, tomato and olive) in order to eliminate or reduce potential inhalation inflammation or toxicity. Although the nanofibers will be used for encapsulation of bioactive compounds for oral delivery the potential for inhalation during process requires toxicity testing. The ingredients as well as the nanofibers will be evaluated for inflammation and toxicity in a mouse model to determine degree and persistence of inflammation or toxicity if any. Ingredients that are most biocompatible will be used in subsequent studies. Objective 4: Develop strategies to mitigate astringency in post-harvest materials in order to increase their utilization. Tannins and minerals contribute to astringency and the identification and characterization of these components is essential. Total and free mineral contents in waste materials (nut shells, hulls, pits, pomaces, skins and seeds from stone fruits, nuts, and persimmons) will be measured using microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion or leaching. Tannin levels in the same materials will be measured using total soluble phenolic, potassium iodate (hydrolysable tannin), and vanillin (condensed tannin) assays. The metal (Zn, Cu, Fe) and protein binding properties of waste material tannins will be measured and compared to the properties of commercially available tannins.

Progress Report
In this reporting period, research on the cellular and extracellular sources of healthful properties of probiotic bacteria were published and research continued on the healthful properties of food processing waste from wine processing, apple juice processing, and potato processing. A scientific journal article reported that heat-killed bacteria from a fermented milk product and its external polysaccharide coating both reduced weight gain and other undesirable metabolic effects in mice on high fat diets. A scientific article was also published reporting that potato skins from colored potatoes reduced fat deposits in mice on high fat diets. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) continued, investigating value-added food applications for brewers spent grains. Research was completed on processing of the brewers spent grains to ensure safety and increase stability in support of commercialization of this new healthy food ingredient. This research was awarded a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant. Snack foods are often low in protein. The composition of gluten-free whole grains, buckwheat, quinoa, peanut meal, kale and beets and prepared snacks were determined. The sensory properties of whole grain gluten-free buckwheat, peanut meal and kale snacks were found to be satisfactory to consumers. In another study, the sensory properties of quinoa, peanut meal, and beet snacks were evaluated. Research on astringency of persimmons was completed and effects of different varieties and postharvest drying on persimmon quality were studied. Bioactive food wastes from mushrooms with high vitamin D content were processed into coatings for fruit bars and cantaloupe. A large Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund grant helped support this research. Blow spinning technology was used to efficiently produce natural nanofibers for controlled release applications from gelatin and corn zein. Natural antimicrobials were incorporated into these nanofibers and controlled release properties were studied. In addition safety studies of the nanofibers were completed.

1. Live and inactivated probiotic bacteria prevent metabolic dysfunction in mice. ARS scientists in Albany, California, showed that a heat-inactivated probiotic bacteria was able to reduce body weight gain in mice on high fat diets. The polysaccharide coating surrounding the bacteria was separated and also reduced body weight gain, reduced fat deposits, and lowered blood cholesterol. This study shows that the mammalian host gut may recognize components and respond beneficially to components of a probiotic or other commensal bacteria. The benefits of yogurt, kefir, kimchi and other fermented foods may be due to both metabolites produced, such as short chain fatty acids, as well as cellular and extracellular components of bacteria.

2. Marketability of persimmons enhanced through characterization, value-added processing, and consumer education. ARS researchers in Albany, California, and Davis, California, raised the profile of persimmon in multiple ways: elucidating the chemical and sensory properties of dozens of persimmon cultivars, developing a hot air-dried, value-added persimmon product, and disseminating their learnings via a point-of-sale flyer. The chemical composition of nonastringent persimmon cultivars and the phenotypic diversity among more than 40 cultivars were determined. Additionally, a set of point-of-sale flyers highlighting chemical and processing research results were published online and downloaded more than 100 times during this season. This research gives U.S. consumers wider access to and knowledge about this nutritious fruit, and supports grower sales.

3. Novel food coating from mushroom waste. Researchers in Albany, California, in collaboration with researchers in Israel, developed for the first time vitamin D-fortified chitosan films and coatings from mushroom waste. Chitosan is a chemical compound that provides structure in mushrooms. Mushroom stalk waste was used for making the nutritionally fortified edible films and coatings. Mushroom coatings helped to preserve the quality and safety of fruit bars and fresh-cut melons, while also increasing the shelf-life. This research has three benefits: increasing the value of mushroom waste products, improving public health by fortification of food products with vitamin D from natural non-animal source, and reducing food loss and waste by using shelf-life-extending antimicrobial edible coatings.

Review Publications
Liu, F., Saricaoglu, F., Avena-Bustillos, R.D., Bridges, D.F., Takeoka, G.R., Wu, V.C., Chiou, B., Wood, D.F., McHugh, T.H., Zhong, F. 2018. Preparation of fish skin gelatin-based nanofibers incorporating cinnamaldehyde by solution blow spinning. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 19(2):618.
Seo, K., Kim, D., Jeong, D., Yokoyama, W.H., Kim, H. 2017. Chardonnay grape seed flour supplemented diets alter intestinal microbiota in diet-induced murine obesity mice. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 41(5):e12396.
Poverenov, E., Arnon-Rips, H., Zaitsev, Y., Bar, V., Danay, O., Horev, B., Bilbao-Sainz, C., McHugh, T.H., Rodov, V. 2018. Potential of chitosan from mushroom waste to enhance quality and storability of fresh-cut melons. Food Chemistry. 268:233-241.
Liu, F., Antoniou, J., Li, Y., Ma, Y., Ma, J., Yokoyama, W.H., Zhong, F. 2016. Tailoring physical properties of transglutaminase-modified gelatin films by varying drying temperature. Food Hydrocolloids. 58:20-28.
Kahlon, T.S., Avena Bustillos, R.D., Chiu, M.M., Hidalgo, M. 2015. Whole grain gluten-free vegetable spicy snacks. Journal of Food Research. 4(5):57-63.
Liang, R., Cheng, L., Yokoyama, W.H., Williams, P., Zhong, F. 2016. Niosomes consisting of Tween-60 and cholesterol improve the chemical stability and antioxidant activity of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate under intestinal tract conditions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 64(48):9180-9188.
Milczarek, R.R., Avena-Mascareno, R., Alonzo, J., Fichot, M.E. 2016. Improving the sun drying of apricots (Prunus armeniaca) with photo-selective dryer cabinet materials. Journal of Food Science. 81(10):E2466-E2475.
Chiou, B., Valenzuela-Medina, D., Bilbao-Sainz, C., Klamczynski, A., Avena-Bustillos, R.D., Milczarek, R.R., Du, W., Glenn, G.M., Orts, W.J. 2016. Torrefaction of almond shells: effects of torrefaction conditions on properties of solid and condensate products. Industrial Crops and Products. 86:40-48.
Fan, Y., Zhang, Y., Yokoyama, W.H., Yi, J. 2017. Endocytosis of corn oil-caseinate emulsions in vitro: impacts of droplet sizes. Food Hydrocolloids. 7:349.
Li, Y., Ding, G., Yokoyama, W.H., Zhong, F. 2017. Characteristics of annealed glutinous rice flour and its formation of fast-frozen dumplings. Journal of Cereal Science. 79:106-112.
Kahlon, T.S., Avena Bustillos, R.D., Chiu, M.M. 2018. Gluten-free ancient whole grain buckwheat snacks. Nutrition & Food Science International Journal.
Kahlon, T.S., Avena Bustillos, R.D., Chiu, M.M. 2017. Quinoa peanut meal beets whole grain gluten-free high protein vegetable snacks. Nutrition & Food Science International Journal. 3(5):555625.
Seo, K., Bartley, G.E., Tam, C.C., Kim, H., Kim, D., Chon, J., Kim, H., Yokoyama, W.H. 2016. Chardonnay grape seed flour ameliorates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance via altered hepatic gene expression for oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid and ceramide synthesis in diet-induced obese mice. PLoS One. 11(12):E0167680. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0167680.
Reyes-Solano, L., Breksa III, A.P., Valdez-Torres, J., Angulo-Escalante, M., Heredia, B. 2017. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Lippia alba essential oil obtained by supercritical CO2 and hydrodistillation. African Journal of Biotechnology. 16(17):962-970.
McCue, K.F., Breksa III, A.P., Vilches, A.M., Belknap, W.R. 2018. Modification of potato steroidal glycoalkaloids with silencing RNA constructs. American Journal of Potato Research. 95:9-14.
Elkahoui, S., Levin, C.E., Bartley, G.E., Yokoyama, W.H., Friedman, M. 2018. Dietary supplementation of potato peel powders prepared from conventional and organic russet and nonorganic gold and red potatoes reduces weight gain in mice on a high-fat diet. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 66(24):6064-6072. doi:10.1021/acs.jafc.8b01987.
Huang, H., Xie, Z., Yokoyama, W.H., Yu, L., Wang, T.T. 2016. Identification of liver CYP51 as a gene responsive to circulating cholesterol in a hamster model. Journal of Nutritional Science. doi: 10.1017/jns.2016.3eCollection2016.
Fan, Y., Yi, J., Zhang, Y., Yokoyama, W.H. 2017. Improved chemical stability and antiproliferative activities of curcumin-loaded nanoparticles with a chitosan chlorogenic acid conjugate. Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 65:10812-10819.
Lim, J., Kim, D., Chon, J., Seo, K., Yokoyama, W.H., Kim, H. 2017. Antiobesity effect of exopolysaccharides isolated from kefir grains. Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 65:10011-10019.
Juneja, V.K., Friedman, M., Mohr, T.B., Silverman, M., Mukhopadhyay, S. 2017. Control of bacillus cereus spore germination and outgrowth in cooked rice during chilling by nonorganic and organic apple, orange, and potato peel powders. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 42:e13558.
Friedman, M., Kozukue, N., Kim, H., Choi, S., Mizuno, M. 2017. Glycoalkaloid, phenolic, and flavonoid content and antioxidative activities of conventional nonorganic and organic potato peel powders from commercial gold, red, and Russet potatoes. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 62:69-75.