Location: Functional Foods Research2016 Annual Report
Objective 1: Evaluate and characterize chemicals and nutriceuticals in agricultural crops and products for new or improved food and feed uses. Objective 2: Enhance methodologies to quickly determine and evaluate chemical components in a given agricultural product. Objective 3: Enhance methodologies to rapidly and non-destructively assess the identity and levels of key phytochemicals and nutriceuticals in large sample sets of raw agricultural harvests and products. Objective 4: Evaluate and characterize phytochemical composition and bio-physical properties from mid-west area crops, and under-utilized plants and nuisance plants to develop new materials for use as naturally based bio-pesticides for microbial, insect, or weed pests, or to enhance home garden, organic, agricultural, horticultural plant growth and production. Objective 5: Evaluate and characterize phytochemical composition and biophysical properties to develop new bio-based additives and products for the production of new bio-based ingredients as plastics, fillers, delivery agents, replacement ingredients for the production of new bio-based consumer products.
The goals of this project are (1) to develop accurate analytical methodology and rapid non-destructive spectrophotometric analytical methods to rapidly assess the levels of specific phytochemicals in seeds, tissues, and processed products, and (2) to develop new uses for low value agricultural waste and co-products, under-utilized plant species. Methodologies will be applied to prepare sufficient quantities of pure phytochemicals for further research, to prepare green-process extracts with defined phytochemical composition, and to characterize the phytochemical composition in products and co-products processed from established crops and new crops, as well as in products from biofuel crops, such as oil seed press cakes, straw, and processing residues. Characterization of key phytochemicals from crude and processed agricultural products and co-products will be used to drive the development of new products from current agricultural crops, as well as developing new and alternative crops. The production of biofuels and agricultural food products generates a variety of co-products (carbon dioxide, sugars, fibers, corn dried distillers grain, glycerol, seed press cakes) and other less valuable residues. Redirecting these wastes to more profitable, higher value uses would benefit both the producers and processors. This project will evaluate and utilize green extraction methods in the preparation of refined phytochemical products, which will be used as ingredients for both functional foods, and new non-food agronomic uses, such as for new uses as functional food ingredients, bio-pesticides and bio-control agents, bio-fillers and additives for alternative bio-fiber and bio-plastic products, and as soil amendments for use in organic farming, lawn care, potting mixes, and home garden products.
The goals of this project are (1) to develop accurate analytical methodology and rapid non-destructive spectrophotometric analytical methods to rapidly assess the levels of specific phytochemicals in seeds, tissues, and processed products, and (2) to develop new uses for low value agricultural waste and co-products, under-utilized plant species. Characterization of key phytochemicals from crude and processed agricultural products and co-products will be used to drive the development of new products from current agricultural crops and alternative crops. The production of biofuels and agricultural food products generates a variety of co-products (carbon dioxide, sugars, fibers, corn dried distillers grain, glycerol, seed press cakes) and other less valuable residues. Redirecting these wastes to more profitable, higher value uses would benefit both the producers and processors. This is the first year of the new project. Building on research performed in the previous project plan, we are evaluating green extraction methods in the preparation of refined phytochemical products, which will be used as ingredients for both functional foods, and new non-food agronomic uses, such as new uses as functional food ingredients, bio-pesticides and bio-control agents, bio-fillers and additives for alternative bio-fiber and bio-plastic products, and as soil amendments for use in organic farming, lawn care, potting mixes, and home garden products. We have several research projects underway, which have resulted in two invention disclosures and 6 new research publications. One of the main focus points of this new project is to develop rapid and non-destructive measurement methods for evaluating the chemical constituents in defined agricultural products such as seed meals. We have evaluated and utilized a set of analytical procedures to measure carbohydrate, fatty acid, amino acid, and phytochemical composition obtained from a large set of soybean samples by collaborative research with the United Soybean Board. This data is being used to develop and confirm the non-destructive near-infrared spectrophotometric (NIR-S) measurement calibrations which can be used to quickly evaluate chemical composition of soybeans. These methods are being transferred to the instrument companies that make the near-infrared (NIR) systems. We have begun working on the NIR-S evaluation of other crop seed meals.
1. New oil crops seed meals. New oil crops from the mustard family produce two products: oil and seed meals. The seed meals cannot be used as animal feed ingredients when they have glucosinolate levels above a minimum set for rape seed oil (CANOLA). Research with University collaborators have shown that ensiling carinata seed meals (an emerging new oil crop) with forages decreased glucosinolate concentrations without major detriment to silage fermentation. In addition, the crude protein of these silages was increased. This shows that ensiling new crop mustard family seed meals can be used to lower glucosinolate levels to meet FDA limits for glucosinolates so they can be used as animal feeds. Agricultural Research Service researchers in Peoria, Illinois, are finding that ensiling is proving to have good potential as an on-farm method to decrease glucosinolate levels in new oil crop seed meals. The dairy industry trade news http://www.dairyherd.com/advice-and-tips/nutrition/ensiling-carinata-meal-forage-option-decrease-glucosinolate-content.
2. A new polysaccharide similar to gum arabic from a North American frost grape species. A new polysaccharide was isolated from the North American frost grape species, Vitis riperia, a wild grape that is typically found in woodland across the United States, and grows up to 50 feet in length. Because it is resistant to the phylloxera pathogenic aphid, the frost grape is used agriculturally as a root stock for grafting of commercial edible grapes. Agricultural Research Service researchers in Peoria, Illinois, have found that the cut stems of frost grape produce large amounts of a viscous, transparent polysaccharide gum, similar in structure to gum arabic, which is a commercial food emulsifying agent. Like gum arabic, the Frost Grape polysaccharide forms viscous solutions and gels, is also an excellent non-oily emulsifier of various food-grade oils. We anticipate that this research will be of interest to the U.S. food and beverage industries as its provides a possible local source of a product similar to gum Arabic. http://www.pjstar.com/article/20160130/NEWS/160139973.
3. Biochar to improve greens. The current United States Golf Association (USGA) specifications recommend that golf green root zones consist of a minimum of 90% sand to provide sufficient drainage and reduce compaction. Biochar is the carbon-rich residual product created under anaerobic conditions by the pyrolysis of phytobiomass. Agricultural Research Service researchers in Peoria, Illinois, have determined the addition of biochar to greens can greatly increase water and nutrient retention, especially in sandy soils. An additional advantage of using biochar instead of other organic amendments is its resistance to microbial decomposition and hence longevity in golf greens. In all but one of the biochar treatments, root lengths were significantly greater with the roots of one treatment approximately three times the length of the control. The addition of certain biochars would improve water retention, and increase overall plant growth in golf green root zones.
4. New uses for the extracts of Eastern red cedar. The LFA, Wasmannia auropunctata Roger is a very serious invasive pest and new methods for controlling this species are needed. Eastern red cedar is an abundant renewable resource and represents a vast potential source of valuable natural products that may serve as natural biocides. The wood from Eastern red cedar was extracted by Agricultural Research Service researchers in Peoria, Illinois, using supercritical carbon dioxide to give cedarwood oil (CWO). Cedrol, the most abundant component of CWO, was tested as well. In a macadamia orchard known to have LFA present, Agricultural Research Service researchers in Hilo, Hawaii, baited chopsticks with peanut butter that were used to test the repellency of CWO and cedrol. The extracts of Eastern red cedar were repellent to the little fire ant demonstrating that CWO could be used as a safe natural ant repellent from a renewable source and could help manage the LFA.
Olivier, H.M., Jenkins, J.A., Berhow, M., Carter, J. 2015. A pilot study testing a natural and a synthetic molluscicide for controlling invasive apple snails (Pomacea maculata). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 96(3):289-294.
Vaughn, S.F., Dinelli, F.D., Tisserat, B., Joshee, N., Vaughan, M.M., Peterson, S.C. 2015. Creeping bentgrass growth in sand-based root zones with or without biochar. Scientia Horticulturae. 197:592-596.
Eller, F.J., Fezza, T., Carvalho, L.A., Jang, E.B., Palmquist, D.E. 2015. Field test for repellency of cedarwood oil and cedrol to little fire ants. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 47:71-77.
Devaiah, S.P., Owens, D.K., Sibhatu, M.B., Sarkar, T.R., Strong, C.L., Mallampalli, V., Asiago, J., Cooke, J., Kiser, S., Lin, Z., Wamucho, A., Hayford, D., Williams, B.E., Loftis, P., Berhow, M.A., Pike, L.M., McIntosh, C.A. 2016. Identification, recombinant expression, and biochemical analysis of putative secondary product glucosyltransferases from Citrus paradisi. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 64(9):1957-1969.
Torres-Rodriguez, M.L., Garcia-Chavez, E., Berhow, M., de Mejia, E.G. 2016. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effect of Calea urticifolia lyophilized aqueous extract on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 188:266-274.
Price, N.P.J., Vermillion, K.E., Eller, F.J., Vaughn, S.F. 2015. Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), an emulsion-forming arabinogalactan gum from the stems of native North American grape species Vitis riparia Michx. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 63(32):7286-7293. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b02316.
Solana, M., Teel, J., Hojilla-Evangelista, M., Bertucco, A., Eller, F. 2016. Counter-current carbon dioxide extraction of fat from soy skim. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 113:106-111.
Harry-O'kuru, R.E., Tisserat, B., Gordon, S.H., Gravett, A. 2015. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly(alpha-hydroxydibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 63(29):6588-6595.
Tisserat, B., Larson, E., Gray, D., Dexter, N., Meunier, C., Moore, L., Haverhals, L. 2015. Ionic liquid-facilitated preparation of lignocellulosic composites. International Journal of Polymer Science. doi: 10.1155/2015/181097.
Oblath, E.A., Isbell, T.A., Berhow, M.A., Allen, B., Archer, D., Brown, J., Gesch, R.W., Hatfield, J.L., Jabro, J.D., Kiniry, J.R., Long, D.S. 2016. Development of near-infrared spectroscopy calibrations to measure quality characteristics in intact Brassicaceae germplasm. Industrial Crops and Products. 89:52-58.
Rich, J.O., Anderson, A.M., Berhow, M.A. 2016. Laccase-mediator catalyzed conversion of model lignin compounds. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 5:111-115.
Price, N.P.J., Labeda, D.P., Naumann, T.A., Vermillion, K.E., Bowman, M.J., Berhow, M.A., Metcalf, W.W., Bischoff, K.M. 2016. Quinovosamycins: New tunicamycin-type antibiotics in which the alpha, beta-1", 11'-linked N-acetylglucosamine residue is replaced by N-acetylquinovosamine. Journal of Antibiotics. 69(8):637-646. doi: 10.1038/ja.2016.49.