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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Orono, Maine » National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center » Research » Research Project #428104

Research Project: Genetic Improvement Of Marine Fish and Shellfish

Location: National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center

Project Number: 8030-31000-004-00-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated

Start Date: Dec 2, 2014
End Date: Dec 1, 2019

Objective:
1: Define phenotypic measures, estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters, and develop a selection index in Atlantic salmon for commercially important traits such as carcass weight, cold tolerance, fillet color, fat content, and sea lice resistance. 1A. Define phenotypic measures and estimate genetic parameters for sea lice resistance and fillet fatty acid levels in Atlantic salmon. 1B. Develop a multi-trait selection index in Atlantic salmon germplasm for carcass weight, fillet fatty acid levels, and sea lice resistance. 2: Evaluate and validate the usefulness of incorporating genotypic information into salmon selective breeding program. 3: Establish links between disease susceptible/resistant phenotypes and genotype for the Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica. 3A: Define disease susceptible and disease resistant phenotypes in selectively-bred C. virginica families through disease challenges and transcriptome analysis. 3B: Discover polymorphisms in candidate genes for disease susceptibility and resistance in C. virginica and develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that can be genotyped in a high-throughput assay. 3C: Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with disease-susceptible and disease-resistant phenotypes in C. virginica.

Approach:
The National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center (NCWMAC) addresses the coldwater marine aquaculture industry’s highest priority research needs. Coldwater aquaculture production has great potential for expansion, and both Atlantic salmon and Eastern oysters are widely accepted as seafood by American consumers. Commercial salmon and oyster producers predominantly utilize stocks that are not many generations removed from wild, unselected stocks. Salmon producers are legally required to culture certified stocks of North American salmon, and the NCWMAC is the only program supporting the US coldwater marine aquaculture industry and developing genetically improved salmon. Aquaculture of the Eastern oyster is a large segment of shellfish aquaculture in the US, and minimal selective breeding has been accomplished in this species. In both species, there is a need to improve the performance of existing stocks. This project plan proposes to meet this need through the following objectives: 1) define phenotypes, estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters, and develop a selection index in Atlantic salmon for important traits such as carcass weight, cold tolerance, fillet color, fat content, and sea lice resistance; 2) evaluate and validate the usefulness of incorporating genomic information into a salmon breeding program; and 3) establish links between disease susceptible and resistant phenotypes and genotype for the Eastern Oyster. Research accomplished during this project will result in the development of genetically improved Atlantic salmon for release to U.S. producers and consumers. Identification of genes associated with oyster disease will provide markers that can be used to enhance and accelerate the development of high-performing oyster lines through selective breeding and will support the East Coast shellfish aquaculture industry.