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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Stoneville, Mississippi » Crop Production Systems Research » Research » Research Project #427342

Research Project: Development of Productive, Profitable, and Sustainable Crop Production Systems for the Mid-South

Location: Crop Production Systems Research

2018 Annual Report

1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Objective 1: Optimize early soybean production system and associated pest management strategies for the Mid-Southern United States. Objective 2: Develop innovative cotton management approaches that will optimize physiological responses of the cotton plant to environmental factors so that it can make the most efficient use of production inputs to improve lint yield and fiber quality. Sub-objective 2.1: Quantify yield, fiber quality, growth and development for varying cotton plant population densities with adequate and less-than-adequate N fertilization, and under irrigated or dryland production. Sub-objective 2.2: Quantify yield, fiber quality, growth and development for varying cotton varieties grown in both twin-row and single-row planting patterns under irrigated or dryland production. Sub-objective 2.3: Assess benefits of transgenic and non-transgenic cotton-soybean rotation systems on soil properties, weeds, yield, and seed and fiber quality in the Mississippi Delta. Objective 3: Assess the benefits of new drought tolerant, multiple herbicide-resistant, and insect-resistant (stacked gene traits) in current or new production systems. Objective 4: Assess impacts of transgene and glyphosate applications on soil microbial communities, plant-microbe interactions, as well as plant health and productivity in corn and soybean. Objective 5: Identify new and/or alternative crops for the Mid-South, determine their potential, and develop management strategies for integration and production.

1b. Approach (from AD-416):
The purpose of this project is to develop productive, profitable, and sustainable crop production systems for three of the mid-southern major row crops (soybean, cotton, and corn) that increase yield, improve quality, and reduce production costs. Over the next five years, we will conduct customer-driven basic and applied research aimed at improving regional-specific cropping systems that are profitable, conserve natural resources, provide effective pest control, and make efficient use of production inputs. The specific production practices to be researched in these 3 major crops include row patterns and row spacing, seeding rates, new genotypes, nutrient management, crop rotations, irrigation, planting dates, and transgene and glyphosate effects on plant health and productivity of corn and soybean. In addition, alternative crops that could be produced using existing equipment and fit into rotation systems will be researched.

3. Progress Report:
Final field evaluations and laboratory assays of MG III soybean germplasm are completed and data being used in a Variety Registration which is in preparation. Growth and yield of cotton was improved following rotation with soybean. A third growing season was necessary for the drought tolerant corn hybrids. Data were analyzed. Assessment of glyphosate-resistant gene and glyphosate applications on soil microbial communities, plant-microbe interactions, as well as plant health and productivity in soybean and corn was completed along with soil and plant sample analysis. A third planting of grain sorghum hybrids X population x row spacing was unnecessary. Data were analyzed. An experiment examining potentially genetic resistant to sugarcane aphid was initiated in response to the insect’s appearance. Two seasons have been successfully harvested. Data analysis is underway. An experiment on grain sorghum hybrids X planting date X irrigation has been completed and data analyzed. A 2-yr field experiment on guar was terminated. Although Guar crop can be grown under Stoneville environment, it failed to produce seed. This was mainly due to lack of availability of suitable cultivars for the location.

4. Accomplishments
1. Rotating soybean with cotton has a potential to increase crop yields but information is lacking. ARS scientists at Stoneville, Mississippi, researched four cotton:soybean rotation schemes compared to continuous soybean under irrigated environment during 2012-2015 and found no differences in soybean seed yields among the rotations. Yearly average soybean yields across all rotations did differ and coincided with differences in rainfall/irrigation totals for each season. Weights of 100-seed samples across rotations found in 2015 to be lower (13.9 g) than the previous years (16.2, 15.6, and 16.2g; 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively). Rotations of cotton with soybean appear to have neither a beneficial or negative effect on soybean yield.

Review Publications
Jha, P., Reddy, K.N. The role of herbicide-resistant crops in integrated weed management, pp. 1-10. In Zimdahl, R.L. (ed.) Integrated Weed Management for Sustainable Agriculture, Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2018.
Bruns, H.A., Reddy, K.N., Pettigrew, W.T. 2018. Effects of rotation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops on soil fertility in Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA. Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science. 3(1):86-88.
Bruns, H.A. 2017. Effects of Boron foliar-fertilization on irrigated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the Mississippi River Valley Delta of the midsouth, USA. Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science. 2(3):167-169.
Bruns, H.A. 2018. Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) fails to consistently respond to N-fertilizer when grown on a Tunica clay soil in the lower Mississippi River Valley, USA. Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science. 3(2): 157-162.
Wagle, P., Gowda, P., Anapalli, S.S., Northup, B.K., Reddy, K.N. 2017. Growing season variability in carbon dioxide exchange of irrigated and rainfed soybean in the southern United States. Science of the Total Environment. 593-594:263-273.
Huang, Y., Ouellet-Plamondon, C.M., Thomson, S.J., Reddy, K.N. 2017. Characterizing downwind drift deposition of aerially applied glyphosate using RbCI as tracer. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering. 10(3):31-36.
Duke, S.O., Rimando, A.M., Reddy, K.N., Cizdziel, J.V., Bellaloui, N., Shaw, D.R., Williams, M., Maul, J.E. 2017. Lack of transgene and glyphosate effects on yield, and mineral and amino acid content of glyphosate-resistant soybean. Pest Management Science. 74:1166-1173. https://doi.10.1002/ps.4625.
Fletcher, R.S., Reddy, K.N. 2018. Geographic information system for pigweed distribution in the US Southeast. Weed Technology. 32:20-26.
Huang, Y., Reddy, K.N., Fletcher, R.S., Pennington, D. 2018. UAV low-altitude remote sensing for precision weed management. Weed Technology. 32:2-6.
CJenkins, M., Locke, M.A., Reddy, K.N., McChesney, D.S., Steinriede Jr, R.W. 2018. Glyphosate applications, glyphosate resistant corn, and tillage on nitrification rates and distribution of nitrifying microbial communities. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 81(6):1371-1380.
Anapalli, S.S., Green, T.R., Reddy, K.N., Gowda, P., Sui, R., Fisher, D.K., Moorhead, J.E., Marek, G.W. 2018. Application of an energy balance method for estimating evapotranspiration in cropping systems. Agricultural Water Management. 204:107-117.