Location: Children's Nutrition Research Center2016 Annual Report
1) Determine the effect of an improved NSLP and SBP on the dietary intake (total day and breakfast/lunch meals) and BMI of youth ages 5-18; 2) Determine the effect of new rules on competitive foods on the dietary intake and BMI of youth; 3) removed due to investigator departure; 4) removed due to investigator departure; 5) assess and enhance the validity and reliability of Personal Activity Location Measurement System, through multiple, iterative studies to accurately measure preschool children's PA, transportation, and location; 6) identify eating patterns in children, adolescents, and adults and examine the association with obesity and related health risk factors; 7) identify barriers and facilitators to Dietary Guidelines for Americans adherence, and examine the association with BMI; 8) assess the impact of food security status on dietary intake measured using HEI-2005, among children across the different age groups, based on parent/family participation in federal food assistance programs; 9) assess the impact of food security status on costs of meals, based on costs per serving of food, nutrient density, and diet quality as measured by HEI-2005, among children across various age groups; 10) Improve validity and reliability of objective dietary assessment by combining Sun e.button system which identifies a prioritized list of likely foods and amounts consumed and at the end of the day have children use ASA24-Kids to review, verify, and correct food identity problems and portion size information from Sun e.button images; 11) improve validity and reliability of objective physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior assessment (both type and intensity) by combining Sun e.button system with accelerometers, and enable children to review and correct estimates of type of activity/sedentary behavior from Sun e.button using a simple correction recording system at the end of the day; 12) conduct formative research with parents of 8- to 10-year-old African American girls to identify beliefs, values, and practices related to diet, PA, sedentary behavior, and body weight; 13) develop and test a text message intervention for parents to test feasibility of factors identified in Obj. 12 at promoting healthy home food and activity environments; 14) develop a model of parent-child interactions in the family eating environment among low-income families, and determine what aspects of parent-child interactions foster excess calorie intake in children; 15) collect descriptive data on behaviors used to assess infant temperament at 4-months of age; 16) assess correlations between infant temperament based on direct observation using two protocols measured at 4-months and 6-months of age; and 17) assess correlations between infant temperament based on direct observation using two protocols in each of two settings (laboratory and daycare).
A multidimensional approach will be undertaken to address the obesity research conducted at the Children's Nutrition Research Center. In one study, nutritionists will assess changes in child dietary behaviors that occur with the new school meal regulations being implemented in 2012-2014, as well as the competitive food guidelines that will be implemented in 2014. These new regulations provide more fruit, vegetables, and whole grain foods, and limit added sugar/fat foods in schools. The impact of the new school meal regulations on the dietary patterns of children at school and over the entire day will be assessed. Pediatricians will assess the validity of using the Personal Activity Location Measurement System (PALMS) tool to simultaneously process accelerometer-based physical activity data and GPS-based location data to identify preschool children's physical activity, transportation, and location since studies have suggested that many young children do not meet the physical activity recommendations. In another study researchers will work to understand and prevent obesity both dietary and physical activity behavior, their determinants, and their direct and indirect associations with overweight will be examined to identify barriers and facilitators to Dietary Guidelines for Americans adherence. Additionally, researchers will obtain costs of foods consumed by children, compare food costs by diet quality, nutrient density, and food security status, assess consumer behaviors from the NHANES consumer behavior questionnaire and determine the impact of food security status on consumer behaviors among children. Other research will develop a model of parent-child interactions in the family eating environment among low-income families (based on direct research observations), and determine what aspects of parent-child interactions foster excess calorie intake in children. Researchers also will utilize an electronic button that has been previously utilized in adults, to objectively assess child diet by verifying food identity and portion size as well as recording the child's physical activity levels. Qualitative research will also be performed in another study to inform intervention content, structure, and procedures in order to assess the feasibility of a culturally grounded text message based obesity prevention intervention with parents of 8-10 year old African American girls. Behavioral researchers will examine whether there is an association between affiliation and orienting in infancy and adiposity, and if so, why this association exists.
Significant research progress was accomplished during the year. To review the progress, please refer to project 3092-51000-058-01S (Project #1), 3092-51000-058-02S (Project #2), and 3092-51000-058-03S (Project #3).
1. Commonly consumed protein foods contribute to nutrient intake, adequacy, and diet quality. An important consideration in dietary planning is how food sources of protein and different dietary patterns meeting protein needs affect nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality. Researchers at the Children's Nutrition Research Center in Houston, Texas conducted a study to show that commonly consumed food sources of protein are more than just protein but also significant sources of essential nutrients. Commonly consumed sources of dietary protein frequently contribute substantially to intakes of nutrients such as calcium, vitamin D, potassium, dietary fiber, iron, and folate, which have been identified as nutrients of "concern" (i.e., intakes are often lower than recommended). Despite this, dietary recommendations to reduce intakes of saturated fat and solid fats may result in dietary guidance to reduce intakes of commonly consumed food sources of protein, in particular animal-based protein. Following such dietary guidance would make it difficult to meet recommended intakes for a number of nutrients, at least without marked changes in dietary consumption patterns.
2. Association between barriers and facilitators to meeting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and body weight status. Recommendations from the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) are intended for Americans ages 2 years and over, and encourages Americans to focus on eating a healthful diet. Researchers at the Children's Nutrition Research Center in Houston, Texas examined the association between barriers and facilitators to meeting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) and weight in a multi-site study. Among the caregivers, body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with total barrier scores for the MyPyramid components of dietary recommendations; facilitators to meeting vegetable and oils intake recommendations were negatively associated with caregiver BMI. Among the children, BMI was associated positively with total barriers and negatively with total facilitators. Caregivers facilitators were significantly related to children's facilitators to meeting DGA recommendations. Our findings are among the first to show associations between weight and/or barriers and facilitators to meeting the DGA in a national, large sample of caregiver-child groups.
3. Food sources of total energy and nutrients among U.S. infants and toddlers. Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. Researchers at the Children's Nutrition Research Center in Houston, Texas conducted a study (secondary data analysis of the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater with important sources of total energy included: milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes; yet foods of low nutritional quality (sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks) also contributed to energy intakes. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. This information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers.
4. Food security status and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation. The deepening link of food insecurity to declining household food supplies leads to increased participation SNAP. Households that turn to SNAP typically do so because they have difficulty in meeting their food needs. Scientists at the Children's Nutrition Research Center in Houston, Texas conducted a study which showed that participation in SNAP may help reduce food insecurity, especially among older children (i.e. 12-18 years old) who also reported being more food insecure than younger children (2-11 years old). This study provides more evidence to the federal agencies sponsoring the SNAP regarding the impact of SNAP participation on food security status and will help address one of the goals of Healthy People 2020 which aims to eliminate food insecurity among children and reduce household food insecurity in an effort to reduce hunger.
5. Food security status and dietary quality among children. Despite the number of studies showing the impact of food security status on dietary quality, ongoing analyses are needed to confirm these findings using recent national data. Children's Nutrition Research Center researchers in Houston, Texas conducted a study which indicated that there were differences in intakes of some food groups (dairy, refined grains and empty calories) among older children (i.e. 12-18 year olds) but none for younger children. With the increasing rates of obesity and related chronic diseases and increased number of households and children experiencing food insecurity, it is even more important to examine the relationship of food security status with weight status and dietary quality. This study provides additional documentation on the impact of food security status on dietary quality.
6. Food security status and nutrient density among children. The American diet is said to be increasingly energy-rich but nutrient-poor. To help improve the nutrient-to-energy ratio, the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended that consumers replace some foods in their diets with more nutrient-dense options. Children's Nutrition Research Center researchers in Houston, Texas conducted a study which indicated that there were differences in nutrient density among older children (i.e. 16-18 years old) between those who are food secure versus those who are food insecure, but none for younger children (ages 2-15 years old). This approach has implications for food labeling, nutritional policy making, and consumer education, especially among low-income food insecure households. Given the current dietary trends, the nutrient density approach can be a valuable tool for nutrition education and dietary guidance
7. Depression is associated with less responsive feeding behaviors. The quality of a mother's mental health can impact how she relates to her child, especially around food. Little research has examined how maternal depression is associated with feeding behaviors of young children. Researchers at the Children's Nutrition Research Center in Houston, Texas observed that mothers who reported higher depressive symptoms were more likely to use verbal pressure to get their child to eat, more likely to discourage independent choices, and less likely to attempt to get their child to use good manners during dinner. Mothers who perceived their child to be difficult were less likely to have non-food related discussions during dinner and less likely to try to get their child to eat a different food. Because mental health issues can be very taxing on mothers, fostering a pleasant and engaging dinner meal may be very difficult for mothers who are depressed and overly stressed.
8. Fresh pear consumption is associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight parameters in adults. No studies have examined the association of consuming fresh pears on nutrient intake or adequacy, diet quality, and weight. Researchers at the Children's Nutrition Research Center in Houston, Texas examined these associations in adults that participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010. Fresh pear consumers had higher intakes of total sugars and lower total, mono-, and saturated fatty acids, and added sugars than non-consumers; consumers also had higher intake for vitamin C, copper, magnesium, and potassium. Diet quality was higher in consumers and they were 35% less likely to be obese compared to non-consumers. Fresh pears should be encouraged as a component of an overall healthy diet.
9. Cooked oatmeal consumption is associated with better diet quality in children. None of the existing studies of whole grains that have looked either at diet or weight/adiposity measures have focused exclusively on oatmeal. In Houston, Texas, Children's Nutrition Research Center researchers assessed the association between oatmeal consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity of children aged 2-18 years. Consumers had higher intakes of dietary fiber, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, and potassium, and significantly lower intakes of total, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and sodium. Consumption of oatmeal by children was associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and reduced risk for central adiposity and obesity and should be encouraged as part of an overall healthful diet.
10. Consumption of apples is associated with better nutrient intake in children. The consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits yet 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below the minimum recommended amounts. Children's Nutrition Research Center researchers in Houston, Texas conducted a study to examine the association between apple (various forms) consumption with nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in a nationally representative sample of children. Consumers of total apple products had higher total intakes of fiber, magnesium, and potassium and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, and sodium than non-consumers. Apple consumers had higher total sugar intake, but lower intake of added sugars compared to non-consumers. The results were similar for individual apple products (i.e. apple juice, applesauce, and whole apples) and suggests that the consumption of any forms of apples provide valuable nutrients in the diets of children.
11. Tree nut consumption is associated with better cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome health risk factors in adults. Tree nuts have been part of the human diet since Paleolithic times yet studies on their nutritional impact have been conflicting. Researchers at the Children's Nutrition Research Center in Houston, Texas conducted a study using secondary data analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets to determine the association of tree nut consumption with risk factors for cardio-vascular disease and for metabolic syndrome in adults. Tree nut consumption was associated with lower body mass index, waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (BP), and higher high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, compared with non-consumers. Tree nut consumption was associated with better weight status and some cardio-vascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome components. Health professionals should encourage the use of tree nuts as part of a dietary approach to healthy eating.
Wang, J., Baranowski, T., Lau, P.W., Pitkethly, A.J., Buday, R. 2015. Acceptability and applicability of an American health videogame with story for childhood obesity prevention among Hong Kong Chinese children. The Games for Health Journal: Research, Development, and Clinical Applications. 4(6):513-519.
Lu, A.S., Buday, R., Thompson, D.J., Baranowski, T. 2016. What type of narrative do children prefer in active video games? An exploratory study of cognitive and emotional responses. In: Tettegah, S.Y., Huang, W.D., editors. Emotions, Technology, and Digital Games. London, UK: Academic Press. p. 137-155.
Kjosen, M.M., Moore, C.E., Cullen, K.W. 2015. Middle school student perceptions of school lunch following revised federal school meal guidelines. Journal of Child Nutrition and Management. 39(2):1-11.
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Baranowski, T., Chen, T.A., O'Connor, T.M., Hughes, S.O., Diep, C.S., Beltran, A., Brand, L., Nicklas, T., Baranowski, J. 2015. Predicting habits of vegetable parenting practices to facilitate the design of change programmes. Public Health Nutrition. doi:10.1017/S1368980015003432.
Mendoza, J.A., Baranowski, T., Jaramillo, S., Fesinmeyer, M.D., Haaland, W., Thompson, D.J., Nicklas, T.A. 2015. Fit 5 Kids TV reduction program for Latino preschoolers: A cluster randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2015.09.017.
Cullen, K.W., Liu, Y., Thompson, D.J. 2016. Meal specific dietary changes from Squires Quest! II: A serious video game intervention. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 48(5):326-330.
Thompson, D.J., Cantu, D., Ramirez, B., Cullen, K.W., Baranowski, T., Mendoza, J., Anderson, B., Jago, R., Rodgers, W., Liu, Y. 2016. Texting to increase adolescent physical activity: Feasibility assessment. American Journal of Health Behavior. 40(4):472-483.
Cullen, K.W., Thompson, D.J., Chen, T.A. 2016. Outcome evaluation of Family Eats: An eight-session web-based program promoting healthy home food environments and dietary behaviors for African American families. Health Education and Behavior. doi: 10.1177/1090198116643917.
Power, T.G., O'Connor, T.M., Fisher, J.O., Hughes, S.O. 2015. Obesity risk in children: The role of acculturation in the feeding practices and styles of low-income Hispanic families. Childhood Obesity. 11(6):715-721.
Vaughn, A.E., Ward, D.S., Fisher, J.O., Faith, M.S., Hughes, S.O., Kremers, S.P., Musher-Eizenman, D.R., O'Connor, T.M., Patrick, H., Power, T.G. 2016. Fundamental constructs in food parenting practices: A content map to guide future research. Nutrition Reviews. 74(2):98-117.
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Brand, L., Beltran, A., Hughes, S., O'Connor, T., Baranowski, J., Nicklas, T., Chen, T.A., Dadabhoy, H.R., Diep, C.S., Buday, R., Baranowski, T. 2016. Assessing feedback in a mobile videogame. The Games for Health Journal: Research, Development, and Clinical Applications. doi:10.1089/g4h.2015.0056.
O'Connor, T.M., Pham, T., Watts, A.W., Tu, A.W., Hughes, S.O., Beauchamp, M.R., Baranowski, T., Masse, L.C. 2016. Development of an item bank for food parenting practices based on published instruments and reports from Canadian and U.S. parents. Appetite. 103:386-395.
Silva Garcia, K., Power, T.G., Fisher, J.O., O'Connor, T.M., Hughes, S.O. 2016. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation. Appetite. 103:200-207.
Raber, M., Swartz, M.C., Santa Maria, D., O'Connor, T., Baranowski, T., Li, R., Chandra, J. 2016. Parental involvement in exercise and diet interventions for childhood cancer survivors: A systematic review. Pediatric Research. doi: 10.1038/pr.2016.84.
Masse, L.C., O'Connor, T.M., Tu, A.W., Watts, A.W., Beauchamp, M., Hughes, S.O., Baranowski, T. 2016. Are the physical activity parenting practices reported by U.S. and Canadian parents captured in currently published instruments? Journal of Physical Activity and Health. doi: 10.1123/jpah.2016-0012.
Hughes, S.O., Power, T.G., Dave, J.M., O'Connor, T.M. 2016. Childhood environment and obesity. In: Ahima, R.S., editor. Metabolic Syndrome: A Comprehensive Textbook. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. p. 243-259.
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Davies, V.F., Mafra, R., Beltran, A., Baranowski, T., Lu, A.S. 2016. Children's cognitive and affective responses about a narrative versus a non-narrative cartoon designed for an active videogame. The Games for Health Journal: Research, Development, and Clinical Applications. 5(2):114-119.
Ledoux, T., Griffith, M., Thompson, D.J., Nguyen, N., Watson, K., Baranowski, J., Buday, R., Abdelsamad, D., Baranowski, T. 2016. An educational video game for nutrition of young people: Theory and design. Simulation & Gaming. doi: 10.1177/1046878116633331.
Lyons, E.J., Baranowski, T., Basen-Engquist, K.M., Lewis, Z.H., Swartz, M.C., Jennings, K., Volpi, E. 2016. Testing the effects of narrative and play on physical activity among breast cancer survivors using mobile apps: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Cancer. 16:202.
Wang, J.J., Baranowski, T., Lau, P.W., Chen, T.A., Pitkethly, A.J. 2016. Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Chinese Children. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. 29(3):177-186.
Esposito, G., Van Bavel, R., Baranowski, T., Duch-Brown, N. 2016. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior. Psychological Reports. doi: 10.1177/0033294116649576.
Mama, S.K., Li, Y., Basen-Engquist, K., Lee, R.E., Thompson, D.J., Wetter, D.W., Nguyen, N.T., Reitzel, L.R., McNeill, L.H. 2016. Psychosocial mechanisms linking the social environment to mental health in African Americans. PLoS One. 11(4):e0154035.
Hughes, S.O., Power, T.G., Liu, Y., Sharp, C., Nicklas, T.A. 2015. Parent emotional distress and feeding styles in low-income families. The role of parent depression and parenting stress. Appetite. 92:337-342. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2015.06.002
Tovar, A., Choumenkovitch, S.F., Hennessy, E., Boulos, R., Must, A., Hughes, S.O., Gute, D.M., Vikre, E., Economos, C.D. 2015. Low demanding parental feeding style is associated with low consumption of whole grains among children of recent immigrants. Appetite. 95:211-218.
Hernandez, D.C., Reesor, L., Alonso, Y., Eagleton, S.G., Hughes, S.O. 2015. Household food insecurity status and Hispanic immigrant children's body mass index and adiposity. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk. 6(2):Article 14.
Hughes, S.O., Frazier-Wood, A. 2016. Satiety and the self-regulation of food intake in children: A potential for gene-environment interplay. Current Obesity Reports. 5(1):81-87.
Baranowski, T., Lytle, L. 2015. Should the IDEFICS outcomes have been expected? Obesity Reviews. 16(Suppl 2):162-172.
Pigeot, I., Baranowski, T., De Henauw, S. 2015. The IDEFICS intervention trial to prevent childhood obesity: Design and study methods. Obesity Reviews. 16(Suppl 2):4-15.
Gandhi, K.K., Baranowski, T., Anderson, B.J., Bansal, N., Redondo, M.J. 2016. Psychosocial aspects of type 1 diabetes in Latino- and Asian-American youth. Pediatric Research. doi:10.1038/pr.2016.87.
DeSmet, A., Thompson, D.J., Baranowski, T., Palmeira, A., Verloigne, M., De Bourdeaudhuij, I. 2016. Is participatory design associated with the effectiveness of serious digital games for healthy lifestyle promotion? A meta-analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 18(4):e94.
Diep, C.S., Beltran, A., Chen, T.A., Thompson, D.J., O'Connor, T., Hughes, S., Baranowski, J., Baranowski, T. 2016. Relating use of effective responsive, structure, and non-directive control vegetable parenting practices to subscales from the Model of Goal Directed Behavior. International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition. 5(2):45-55.
Phillips, S.M., Fulgoni III, V.L., Heaney, R.P., Nicklas, T.A., Slavin, J.L., Weaver, C.M. 2015. Commonly consumed protein foods contribute to nutrient intake, diet quality, and nutrient adequacy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 101(Suppl):1346S-1352S.
Nicklas, T.A., O'Neil, C.E., Fulgoni III, V.L. 2015. Consumption of various forms of apples is associated with a better nutrient intake and improved nutrient adequacy in diets of children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010. Food and Nutrition Research. 59:25948.
Grimes, C.A., Szymlek-Gay, E.A., Campbell, K.J., Nicklas, T.A. 2015. Food sources of total energy and nutrients among U.S. infants and toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012. Nutrients. 7(8):6797-6836.
Nicklas, T.A., Liu, Y., Islam, N., O'Neil, C.E. 2016. Removing potatoes from children's diets may compromise potassium intake. Advances in Nutrition. 7(Suppl):247S-253S.
Nicklas, T.A., O'Neil, C.E., Fulgoni III, V.L. 2015. Consumption of 100% fruit juice is associated with better nutrient intake and diet quality but not with weight status in children: NHANES 2007-2010. International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition. 4:112-121.
O'Neil, C.E., Nicklas, T.A., Fulgoni III, V.L. 2015. Fresh pear consumption is associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight parameters in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 5:377. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000377.
O'Neil, C.E., Nicklas, T.A., Fulgoni III, V.L. 2014. Chickpeas and hummus are associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and levels of some cardiovascular risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 4:254. doi: 10.4172/2155-9600.1000254.
Nicklas, T.A., O'Niel, C.E., Fulgoni III, V.L. 2015. Replacing 100% fruit juice with whole fruit results in a trade off of nutrient in the diets of children. Current Nutrition and Food Science. 11:267-273.
Wong, W.W., Strizich, G., Heo, M., et al. 2016. Relationship between body fat and BMI in a U.S. Hispanic population-based cohort study: Results from HCHS/SOL. Obesity. doi: 10.1002/oby.21495.
Farhat, A.E., Sharma, S., Abrams, S.H., Wong, W.W., Barlow, S.E. 2016. Kamp K’aana, a 2-week residential weight management summer camp, shows long-term improvement in body mass index z scores. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 62:491-494.
Moreno, J.P., Johnston, C.A., Hernandez, D.C., Lenoble, J., Papaioannou, M.A., Foreyt, J.P. 2015. Impact of parental weight status on a school-based weight management programme designed for Mexican-American children. Pediatric Obesity. doi: 10.1111/ijpo.12066.
Wong, W.W., Clarke, L.L. 2015. Accuracy of delta 18O isotope ratio measurements on the same sample by continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 29: 2252-2256.
Hughes, S.O., Power, T.G., Beck, A., Betz, D., Calodich, S., Goodell, L.S., Hill, L.G., Hill, R., Jaramillo, J.A., Johnson, S.L., Lanigan, J., Lawrence, A., Martinez, A.D., Nesbitt, M., Overath, I., Parker, L., Ullrich-French, S. 2016. Strategies for Effective Eating Development-SEEDS: Design of an obesity prevention program to promote healthy food preferences and eating self-regulation in children from low-income families. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 48(6):405-418.
Thompson, D.J., Ferry, Jr, R.J., Cullen, K.W., Liu, Y. 2016. Improvement in fruit and vegetable consumption associated with more favorable energy density and nutrient and food group intake, but not kilocalories. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2016.05.002.
O'Neil, C.E., Nicklas, T.A., Fulgoni III, V.L. 2016. Almond consumption is associated with better nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 7:504-515. doi: 10.4236/fns.2016.77052.
Chen, T.A., Baranowski, T., Moreno, J.P., O'Connor, T.M., Hughes, S.O., Baranowski, J., Woehler, D., Kimbro, R.T., Johnston, C.A. 2016. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children. BioMed Central(BMC) Public Health. 16:526.
Hughes, S.O., Power, T.G., O'Connor, T.M., Fisher, J.O., Chen, T. 2016. Maternal feeding styles and food parenting practices as predictors of longitudinal changes in weight status in Hispanic preschoolers from low-income families. Journal of Obesity. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7201082.
Diep, C.S., Leung, R., Thompson, D.J., Gor, B.J., Baranowski, T. 2016. Physical activity behaviors and influences among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years: A qualitative study. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health. doi:10.1007/s10903-016-0457-4.
Iovino, I., Stuff, J., Liu, Y., Brewton, C., Dovi, A., Kleinman, R., Nicklas, T. 2016. Breakfast consumption has no effect on neuropsychological functioning in children: A repeated-measures clinical trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. doi:10.3945/ajcn.116.132043.
Thompson, D.J., Cullen, K.W., Redondo, M.J., Anderson, B. 2016. Use of relational agents to improve family communication in type 1 diabetes: Methods. JMIR Research Protocols. 5(3):e151.
Wong, W.W., Ortiz, C.L., Stuff, J.E., Mikhail, C., Lathan, D., Moore, L.A., Alejandro, M.E., Butte, N.F., Smith, E.O. 2016. A community-based healthy living promotion program improved self-esteem among minority children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 63(1):106-112.