Location: Food Surveys Research Group2017 Annual Report
The overall objective of this project is to maintain and enhance the components of the USDA Dietary Intake Data System to assure that the dietary collection method, the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM), and the supporting systems and databases result in the collection of dietary data that are scientifically sound, accurate, and valid. Objective 1. Conduct research and disseminate data on dietary intakes of the U.S. population through nationwide surveys. Sub-objective 1-1. Oversee dietary data collection and coding. Sub-objective 1-2. Conduct data review and data processing. Sub-objective 1-3. Compile data and provide documentation for public release. Objective 2. Maintain and update supporting survey-related databases based upon scientifically sound research and utilization of technological innovations. Sub-objective 2-1. Update and enhance FNDDS to support the WWEIA data release and research needs. Sub-objective 2-2. Develop and update special purpose databases to support research and policy needs. Objective 3. Assess and update dietary data collection methods and quality control procedures to enhance accuracy of dietary survey data. Sub-objective 3-1. Enhance the protocol to track and identify market changes in foods and beverages to inform dietary data collection methodology. Sub-objective 3-2. Enhance the accuracy and precision of dietary survey data to meet research needs through improvements to data collection methods. Sub-objective 3-3. Document and report changes to dietary data collection methods in concert with WWEIA data releases. Objective 4. Analyze and interpret results from nationwide dietary surveys focusing research on topics to include nutritional adequacy of the American population and at-risk sub-groups, dietary patterns, interrelationships between food component intakes, public health nutritional concerns, and/or policy implications. Sub-objective 4-1. Assess and report on dietary status and nutritional adequacy of U.S. population and population subgroups. Sub-objective 4-2. Serve as expert resource in use of the dietary survey data.
The USDA AMPM is being used to collect 10,000 dietary recalls yearly in What We Eat In America, the dietary interview component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The Food Surveys Research Group, having the lead responsibility for the dietary assessment component of NHANES, will focus on developing and implementing methods such that 1) the dietary collection method collects accurate data and is valid, 2) the data collected meet stakeholder needs and are released in a timely fashion, 3) the systems for data collection and processing are technologically advanced and efficient, 4) the dietary databases to support data analyses are scientifically sound and current so as to reflect the U.S. food supply at the time of data collection, 5) the data are interpreted and reported to address critical and pressing policy issues of the time, and 6) the applications developed for collection and processing are made available to the fullest extent possible. Special purpose databases to support specialized research policy needs, including the Food Patterns Equivalents Database used to assess American diets in relation to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, will be developed and maintained.
Through an ongoing collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics, DHHS, the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG) has the lead role for dietary data collection and processing of What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES. Web release of WWEIA, NHANES 2015-2016 is on schedule for fall of 2018, providing the eighth release of national dietary data from this collaboration. The new data will provide information on dietary intakes of 10,000 individuals based on 24-hour dietary recalls statistically weighted to be representative of the population during the collection years. The data includes extensive detail on the description and amount of foods and beverages consumed over two 24-hour periods for each individual. Further information such as additions to the food or beverage, items eaten together, time each item was consumed, name of eating occasion, source of where obtained, and if it was eaten at home are also provided. The corresponding Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 2015-2016, that provides the 65-nutrient profile for each food and beverage in WWEIA, will also be released in 2018. The FNDDS, used to analyze dietary intakes from WWEIA, is also used by nutrition researchers in their dietary studies. Data collection for the 2017 WWEIA, NHANES is ongoing. FSRG conducted training sessions and quality control oversight for data collection and coding performed by the NHANES contractor. Onsite visits to select NHANES sites across the U.S. were made by FSRG to conduct quality review of dietary data collection. The USDA 5-step Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM), the computer-based instrument used to collect 24-hour dietary recalls in WWEIA, has thousands of questions and subsequent response options specific to the variety of foods and beverages consumed in the U.S. These questions, grouped by 130 pathways, require review and update. Major revision was completed for 15 pathways for the 2017-2018 collection years. The survey food database used by the NHANES contractor to code reported foods/beverages and their amounts was updated for the 2017-2018 collection years with data on new items and changes to current foods/beverages. The FNDDS 2013-2014, used to convert food and beverages consumed in 2013-2014 WWEIA, NHANES into gram amounts and to determine their nutrient values, was released on the FSRG Web site www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg. The release consisted of 11 interrelated data files including more than 8,500 foods and beverages, their detailed descriptions, values for energy and 64 nutrients and source designation for each value, and 40,000 portions and weights. FNDDS is also used in other dietary studies to code foods/beverages and amounts eaten and to calculate the amounts of nutrients/food components in those items. A 2013-2014 FNDDS Fortification Designation File has been developed to designate those foods/beverages that are either fortified or are made up of fortified components. This file provides a tool for researchers assessing the impact of fortification on nutrient intakes of the U.S. population. With each release of the FNDDS, a notable increase in the number of food/beverage codes is added; additionally, codes are discontinued which can pose challenges for researchers. FSRG researchers developed a special crosswalk file of code changes and linkages between FNDDS 2011-2012 and 2013-2014. The file identifies changes to codes--discontinued, expanded, or consolidated. The availability of a resource to crosswalk appropriate discontinued food/beverage codes between FNDDS versions benefits researchers conducting trend analysis or using the FNDDS to support other food intake databases. The file is available on the FSRG Web site www.ars.usda.gov.nea/bhnrc/fsrg. The WWEIA Food Categories 2013-2014 were developed, an application to analyze foods and beverages as consumed in the American diet. Each of the food and beverage items that can be reported in the national survey is sorted into 152 unique food categories. Designed to be flexible, the categories can be combined to address specific research questions. A new version of the WWEIA Food Categories is produced for each 2-year release cycle of NHANES and available on the FSRG Web site www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg. Uses of the WWEIA Food Categories have included development of food guidance programs and educational materials, monitoring food intake, and identifying food trends and food/beverage sources of nutrients. Data tables summarizing dietary intakes of the U.S. population can readily be used by government groups, nutrition researchers, and the general public. FSRG researchers have analyzed dietary and supplement use data from WWEIA, NHANES 2013-2014 and developed 4 tables summarizing nutrient intakes from food and beverages and dietary supplements for 22 select vitamins and minerals. Estimated means and standard errors by supplement users, nonusers, and all individuals are provided for 11 age/gender groups as well as race/ethnicity, family income, and poverty level. The tables are available on the FSRG Web site www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg. The availability and enhanced accessibility of these new tables are a benefit to users in need of current population-level information on total nutrient intakes of Americans. Analysis of the WWEIA data was completed to construct dietary data briefs and research articles on a variety of topics including sodium intake, trends and use of discretionary salt at the table and in cooking, phosphorus intake, sodium/potassium ratios, Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) components, and methods to estimate fruit and vegetable intakes. The FPED 2013-2014 was developed and released on the FSRG Web site www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg. FPED serves as a unique research tool to evaluate food and beverage intakes of Americans compared to recommendations of the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). The FPED 2013-2014 converts foods and beverages in the WWEIA, NHANES 2013-2014 to equivalent amounts of the 37 USDA FP Components, including added sugars and whole grains. Summary table sets on mean intakes of the 37 FP components by 23 age-gender and socioeconomic subgroups for 2013-2014 have also been developed and released. The DGA 2015-2020 recommend that Americans limit their added sugars intake to less than 10 percent of daily calories and increase their fruit, vegetables, and whole grains intakes. To determine how dietary intakes of Americans fare in meeting these recommendations, FSRG researchers have analyzed changes in the U.S. population’s intake of selected USDA FP components, including added sugars and solid fats, using WWEIA, NHANES 2003-2004 and 2013-2014 dietary data. Results show added sugars intake has decreased from 21 to 17.4 teaspoon equivalents, and solid fats intake from 47.6 to 35.3 grams, respectively. Less than half of Americans (42%) met the 2015-2020 DGA recommendation for added sugars intake. Those who met the recommendation consumed 6.7 teaspoon equivalents of added sugars; those who did not consumed 25.1 teaspoon equivalents. No changes were noted in the fruit; vegetables; dairy; and total meat, poultry, and seafood intakes between 2003-2004 and 2013-2014. Two dietary data briefs reporting these results have been published on the FSRG Web site www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc.fsrg. The DGA 2020 will have an additional focus on children from birth to 24 months of age. FSRG researchers analyzed dietary intakes reported by mothers of 469 toddlers age 1-2 years in WWEIA, NHANES 2011-2012. Usual nutrient intakes of vitamins D and E were less than the recommended intake levels by 86% and 62% of toddlers, respectively. Almost all toddlers (96%) had usual intakes less than the recommendations for dietary fiber and potassium, and 71% exceeded the upper level for sodium. Mean daily intake of added sugars was 10% of daily energy intake, with approximately 40% of toddlers exceeding that level. Snack occasions contributed one-third of their daily energy intake; beverages contributed one-fourth. Milk, water, and 100% fruit juice were the top beverages consumed by toddlers. Soft drinks were consumed by 14% of toddlers. A greater proportion of toddlers consumed fruit (71%) compared with vegetables (57%). Nearly 1 in 3 toddlers consumed candy, and 2 in 5 consumed cakes/cookies/pastries. More than one-third consumed savory snacks, including chips, popcorn, and pretzels, and an equal proportion consumed crackers. These data will help formulate future recommendations for this age group. FSRG researchers have quantified flavonoid intakes of the U.S. adult population and analyzed associations between dietary flavonoid intake and health outcome measures collected in NHANES 2007-2010. Associations between flavonoid intake and anthropometric measures indicative of high cardiovascular disease risk showed an inverse relationship with intake of total flavonoids and three flavonoid classes. These findings, obtained using a large, nationally representative sample, concur with those of cohort studies which support the benefits of flavonoids on human health. FSRG collaborates with scientists at the National Institute on Aging’s Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span Study (HANDLS), a representative 20-year longitudinal study across the lifespan focused on investigating the differential influences of race and socioeconomic status on health. The study sample (4,000 participants) includes European-Americans and African-Americans 30-64 years of age from both low and high socioeconomic strata residing in Baltimore City, MD. FSRG researchers collaborated on the dietary data collection providing scientific and technical oversight. The AMPM and related coding and processing programs are used by HANDLS for assessing dietary intakes of study participants.
1. Release of national estimates of daily intakes of Food Pattern components based on WWEIA (What We Eat in America), NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 2013-2014. Foods and beverages reported in national dietary surveys NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) and WMEIA (What We Eat in America), have been separated into 37 Food Pattern components to report on individual amounts consumed of those components. Four sets of tables have been released on the Web that summarize food and beverage intakes across the 37 Food Pattern components for 23 age-gender and socioeconomic groups for national dietary survey data conducted in 2013-2014. These estimates provide the only unique data to evaluate food and beverage intakes of Americans compared to recommendations of the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) that converts foods reported in the 2013-2014 survey as well as the Methodology and User Guide for FPED were also released on the Web at the USDA site.
2. Release of two dietary data briefs assessing added sugars intake and changes in food intakes over time by Americans. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020 recommend that Americans limit their added sugars intake to less than 10 percent of daily calories. Less than half of Americans (42%) met that recommendation. Those who met this recommendation consumed 6.7 teaspoon equivalents of added sugars compared to four times that amount (25.1 teaspoon equivalents) for those who did not. Although many Americans were not meeting this added sugars recommendation, results between 2003-2004 and 2013-2014 show there has been a decrease in mean daily added sugars intake, from 21 to 17.4 teaspoon equivalents, respectively. Intakes of solid fats during this 10-year period have also decreased, from 47.6 to 35.3 grams, respectively. However, no changes were noted in the fruit; vegetables; dairy; and total meat, poultry, and seafood intakes. These data briefs are accessible on the Web at the USDA site.
3. Update and release of the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies. The USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 2013-2014 (FNDDS) was released on the Web. The FNDDS is an extensive database used to convert food and beverages reported consumed in typical household measures in the 2013-2014 WWEIA, NHANES into gram amounts and to determine their nutrient values. It is used to code foods and portion sizes and to calculate nutrients. FNDDS contains information for nearly 8,000 foods and beverages. Values for food energy and 64 other nutrients are included for each item, as well as weights for common portions of the item. Nutrient values for items in FNDDS are derived from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference 28. New versions of FNDDS are released every two years to accompany the release of the WWEIA, NHANES data. This update (version 2013-2014) of FNDDS was used to process dietary intakes from WWEIA, NHANES 2013-2014. The database is also a valuable research tool for scientists conducting studies that collect food intake data. The database is accessible on the Web at the USDA site.
4. Release of national estimates on summary dietary data tables. For each 2-year survey data release, What We Eat in America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dietary intake data are analyzed and results released on the Web. Further analysis has been conducted by ARS researchers in the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland, resulting in the release of an additional 4 summarized tables. These additional tables report nutrient intakes from food and beverages and dietary supplements for 22 select vitamins and minerals. These tables facilitate quick comparisons of nutrient intakes between the age/gender, race/ethnicity, and income groups. Data tables summarizing dietary intakes of the U.S. population can readily be used by government groups, nutrition researchers, and the general public. All summarized data tables are accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg.
Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Friday, J.E., Lynch, K.L., Moshfegh, A.J. 2017. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2013-14: Methodology and User Guide. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23870.
Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Friday, J.E., Lynch, K.L., Moshfegh, A.J. 2017. Food Patterns Equivalent Intakes from Food: Mean Amounts Consumed per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2013-14; Tables 1-4. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23868.
Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Friday, J.E., Lynch, K.L., LaComb, R.P., Moshfegh, A.J. 2017. Food Patterns Equivalents Intakes by Americans: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2003-2004 and 2013-2014. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=19476.
Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Martin, C.L., Anand, J., Steinfeldt, L.C., Moshfegh, A.J. 2017. Added Sugars Intake of Americans: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2013-2014. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=19476.
Moshfegh, A.J., Goldman, J.D., Anand, J., Enns, C.W., Friday, J.E., Garceau, A.O., Hymes, M.A., LaComb, R.P., Martin, C.L., Rhodes, D.G., Steinfeldt, L.C. 2016. What We Eat in America, NHANES 2013-2014: Documentation and Data Files. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18354.
Rhodes, D.G., Clemens, J.C., Adler, M.E., Goldman, J.D., Moshfegh, A.J. 2016. What We Eat in America Food Categories, 2013-2014. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23429.
Rhodes, D.G., Clemens, J.C., Goldman, J.D., LaComb, R.P., Moshfegh, A.J. 2016. 2013-2014 What We Eat in America, NHANES Tables 1-56. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349.
Bowman, S.A., Friday, J.E., Clemens, J.C., LaComb, R.P., Moshfegh, A.J. 2016. A comparison of food patterns equivalents intakes by Americans: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2003-2004 and 2011-2012. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/services/docs.htm?docid=19476.
Moshfegh, A.J., Kovalchik, A.F., Clemens, J.C. 2016. Phosphorus Intake of Americans, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2011-2012. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/services/docs.htm?docid=19476.
Sebastian, R.S., Enns, C.W., Goldman, J.D., Steinfeldt, L.C., Martin, C.L., Moshfegh, A.J. 2016. Flavonoid values for USDA survey foods and beverages 2007-2010. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=25102.
Sebastian, R.S., Enns, C.W., Clemens, J.C., Goldman, J.D., Steinfeldt, L.C., Martin, C.L., Moshfegh, A.J. 2016. Flavonoid intake from food and beverages: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2010 Tables 1-4. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=25102.
Moshfegh, A.J., Rhodes, D.G., Goldman, J.D., Clemens, J.C. 2017. Characterizing the dietary landscape of children, 12 to 35 months old. Nutrition Today. 52(2):S52-S59. doi: 10.1097/NT.0000000000000197.
Quader, Z.S., Zhao, L., Gillespie, C., Cogswell, M.E., Terry, A.L., Moshfegh, A.J., Rhodes, D.G. 2017. Sodium intake among persons aged >=2 years – United States, 2013-2014. Electronic Publication. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). 66(12):324–238. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6612a3.
Cogswell, M.E., Patel, S.M., Yuan, K., Gillespie, C., Juan, W., Curtis, C.J., Vigneault, M., Clapp, J., Roach, P., Moshfegh, A., Ahuja, J.K., Pehrsson, P.R., Brookmire, L., Merritt, R. 2017. Modeled changes in U.S. sodium intake from reducing sodium concentrations of commercially processed and prepared foods to meet voluntary standards established in North America: NHANES. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. doi:10.3945/ajcn.116.145623.
Adler, M.E., Rhodes, D.G., Moshfegh, A.J. 2017. Discontinued Codes in The USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2017.07.017.
Bowman, S.A. 2017. Added sugars: Definition and estimation in the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Databases. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2017.07.013.
Rhodes, D.G., Adler, M.E., Clemens, J.C., Moshfegh, A.J. 2017. What We Eat in America Food Categories and changes between survey cycles. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2017.07.018.