Project Number: 2080-21000-015-00-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated
Start Date: Oct 1, 2013
End Date: Sep 30, 2018
Objective 1: Improve the production and management of non-Apis bees such as blue orchard bees, bumble bees, and alfalfa leafcutting bees for crop pollination by increasing knowledge of bee nutritional needs and environmental effects on bee physiology (especially on diapause and overwintering). Sub-Objective 1.1: Identify the pollen and nectar requirements for maintaining non-Apis bee fitness, in both native and managed ecosystems. Sub-Objective 1.2: Develop a better understanding of the environmental factors that affect diapause in non-Apis bees, and develop methods to improve winter survival. Objective 2: Identify environmental (e.g. poor nutrition) and biological factors associated with bee declines (non-Apis species and the honey bee) and develop methods to diagnose and control non-Apis mortality, such as pollen ball and chalkbrood, that are caused by parasites, pathogens (e.g. Crithidia and viruses of bumble bees), and pesticides. Sub-Objective 2.1: For non-Apis bees, develop methods to control pests and diagnose and treat infectious diseases. Sub-Objective 2.2: Identify the primary environmental and biological factors that affect managed bee sustainability. Objective 3: Quantify bee forage in relation to floral resources and management practices, such as grazing and improve nesting design and strategies (e.g. using chemical cues to enhance nest location), to maximize bee pollination. Sub-Objective 3.1: Improve the reproduction and health of Megachile rotundata (alfalfa leafcutting bee) and native bees by providing non-crop floral resources. Sub-Objective 3.2: Improve production systems for managed non-Apis bees. Objective 4: Improve bee taxonomy and curation and identify mechanisms that affect bee diversity to enhance conservation efforts, particularly in relation to fire and climate change. Sub-Objective 4.1: Expand the taxonomy and systematics of native bees and develop user-friendly identification keys. Sub-Objective 4.2: Evaluate bee biodiversity and improve the knowledge needed to achieve effective bee conservation and stewardship. Sub-Objective 4.3: Evaluate the effect of habitat-altering events on bee diversity and abundance, especially the effects of fire. Sub-Objective 4.4: Identify climatic factors that define the ranges, phenologies and population persistence of select native bees.
Bees are vital to agriculture. The commercial production of more than 90 crops is accomplished through bee pollination. The honey bee is the best known crop pollinator, but unfortunately, honey beekeepers have been facing a recent bee health crisis. Although a significant amount of scientific time and effort has been invested into identifying the causes for poor colony health, the issue can be viewed as a more general problem, the declining availability of pollinators for agriculture and ecosystems. In addition to working toward finding solutions to the health issues facing honey bees, we provide another approach: tapping into the pollination potential of the diverse bee fauna of the U.S. This project plan addresses four main objectives (Fig. 1): (1) improve non-Apis bee production and management systems, (2) develop methods to control pathogens and parasites and identify environmental stressors for all bees, (3) understand the foraging and nutritional needs of non-Apis bees, and (4) improve bee systematics and taxonomy and our knowledge of bee diversity. Our overriding goal is to provide agriculture with a tool box of pollinators. To achieve this, we must provide a better understanding of the causes behind pollinator declines, improve pollinator availability, and better understand how bee population size and density affect crop pollination. Of necessity, this requires addressing diseases and parasites, environmental impacts, and human-induced threats such as pesticides and habitat loss. Equally important is wild bee diversity. Wild bees provide free pollination services for agricultural crops, maintain plant reproduction in natural areas, and ensure a pool of future managed pollinators.