Location: Sugarbeet and Bean Research2014 Annual Report
Objective 1: Breed dry bean germplasm for increased nutrient density and for decreased phytic acid in dry bean seeds, and identify the genes involved in these traits. Objective 2: Determine the genetic control of, and develop molecular markers for, dry bean germplasm with decreased cooking time, improved canning quality and color retention traits.
Identify QTL for seed iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in a black bean RIL population. Conduct Meta QTL analysis using the results of six QTL studies for seed Fe and Zn content. The consensus QTL identified through the meta analysis will be validated by developing near isogenic lines for the consensus QTL using the closest markers. Inbred backcross will be used to introduce high seed Fe and Zn content into U.S. adapted black beans. Develop low phytic acid U.S. adapted black bean germplasm via backcrossing the single gene trait into a U.S. black bean background. Identify and validate markers for canning quality in black beans. Identify the Rk and C seed coat color in light red kidney and dark red kidney colors via RNA sequencing. Develop improved cranberry bean germplasm. A diversity analysis and strategic crossing with other seed types will be used as an approach to increase the genetic diversity in the market class. Assessment of cooking time and canning quality will be conducted in a panel of P. vulgaris genotypes from the Andean gene pool. Multivariate clustering analyses will be performed for traits such as cooking time, water uptake, canning appearance, texture, and color for determining similarity and grouping of lines. Genotypes with superior quality traits and combinations of traits will be identified for use as parents for crossing. Association mapping will be conducted to identify genomic regions influencing cooking time and canning quality.
A QTL consensus map has been developed by combining QTL data from a black bean recombinant inbred line population and an additional three RIL populations. This analysis identified QTL on chromosomes 6 and 11 that appear to be important for seed Fe and Zn levels across diverse bean germplasm. These consensus QTL are currently being validated. The molecular markers associated with the high seed mineral levels are being screened across bean germplasm for utility in marker assisted selection. Black bean donor lines with high seed Fe and Zn have been crossed into high yielding black bean varieties and one to two backcrosses have been made. These materials have been planted in the field and will be evaluated for agronomic characteristics and advanced to the next generation at which time they will be evaluated for seed mineral levels. Three low phytic acid bean lines were received from the Italian Institute of Biology and Biotechnology. These lines were crossed with high yielding U.S. black bean germplasm and were backcrossed to the adapted parent and/or self-pollinated. The crosses are currently being grown in the field and will be evaluated via SNP melting curve analysis for the presence of the low phytic acid trait. A panel of dry beans from the Andean gene pool have been evaluated for cooking time and canning quality. Lines with superior cooking time and canning quality have been identified. Crosses have been initiated to understand the genetics of these traits as well as for breeding purposes. A cranberry bean breeding program is underway. Crosses were made in the greenhouse over the winter and the F2 generation are currently growing in the field. Also advanced yield trials are being conducted on a group of F4 cranberry lines.
1. Identification of genomic regions association with cooking time in beans. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) are a nutrient dense, low cost food and therefore are an excellent value for consumers. In spite of this value, long cooking times limit bean consumption. Understanding the genetic variability for cooking time in beans and genomic control of this trait will help efficiently breed fast cooking bean varieties. A group of 240 Andean bean lines, grown in 2012 and 2013 at the Montcalm Research Farm in Entrican, Michigan were evaluated for cooking time. The lines were characterized for genetic differences. The average cooking time of the 240 lines was 38 min with the fastest line cooking in 19 min and the slowest line cooking in 87 min. Genetic elements associated with cooking time were detected on chromosomes 2 and 10 with evidence suggesting that enzymes coded on chromosome 2 (pectin methyltransferases may influence cooking time.
2. Fast cooking bean varieties retain more nutrients than longer cooking beans. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) are a nutrient dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. To make these nutrients available to humans, dry beans must first undergo a thermal transformation. The cooking time required to make beans palatable varies by genotype. Fast, medium, and slow cooking genotypes across four bean market classes--yellow, cranberry, light red kidney, and red mottled--were selected and evaluated to determine how cooking time influences their nutritional composition in freshly harvested seed and seed stored for one year. Each of the lines was cooked until palatable. In each of the four market classes evaluated, the genotypes that required the shortest cooking time retained a higher percentage of protein and iron in the seed than those that required longer cooking times and therefore would benefit consumers in terms of convenience and added nutrition.
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Cichy, K.A., Fernandez, A., Kilian, A., Kelly, J.D., Galeano, C.H., Shaw, R.S., Brick, M., Hodkinson, D., Troxtell, E. 2014. QTL analysis of canning quality and color retention in black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Molecular Breeding. 33(1):139-154.