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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Stoneville, Mississippi » Crop Genetics Research » Research » Research Project #425112

Research Project: Enhancing Fiber and Seed Quality Traits Through Conventional and Molecular Approaches, and Conducting the National Cotton Variety Testing Program to Improve Cotton Competitive Ability

Location: Crop Genetics Research

Project Number: 6066-21000-051-000-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated

Start Date: Apr 18, 2013
End Date: Mar 25, 2018

Objective 1 - Develop and release superior cotton germplasm or genetic stocks that incorporate improved lint yield, combined with value added traits such as longer fiber, improved ginning efficiency, nectariless, or high leaf Terpenoid Aldehydes, with accompanying DNA markers and improved methods for effective selection. Sub-objective 1A - Identify and evaluate lines with improved ginning efficiency using conventional and molecular methods. Sub-objective 1B - Identify and introgress into adapted cotton lines, natural variants that improve host plant resistance (HPR) to pests. Objective 2 - Use genetics, genomics, and molecular approaches to determine interrelationships among these genetic and agronomic traits and how they are controlled, as well as develop strategies to reduce undesirable linkages between traits. Sub-objective 2A – Broaden the genetic base of Upland cotton and improve efficiency of trait transfer by evaluating genetic and genomic relationships and the interactions that occur during intermating and introgression of fiber traits. Sub-objective 2B - Develop and compare strategies to reduce undesirable linkages between lint yield and fiber traits. Sub-objective 2C - Use the rapidly expanding arsenal of molecular techniques to develop and evaluate near isogenic lines with phenotypic variants for fiber and leaf trichomes. Objective 3 - Conduct a regional and national cotton variety testing program to generate supporting data that can be applied in a diverse set of situations to develop genetic and/or production strategies to improve the cotton crop. Sub-objective 3A - Test annually new germplasm and varieties for yield, fiber and seed quality and maintain a database of the evaluation. Sub-objective 3B - Compare and validate effects of changing the source or method of fiber quality analyses or seed assays.

Use a coordinated approach to develop new germplasm and tools to improve cotton fiber and seed, as well as maintaining a regional and national cotton testing program relevant to the needs of the cotton community. Use cotton variants as a tool, as well as novel cotton lines developed from intermating diverse germplasm, to reduce the existing negative association between yield and fiber quality. Improve the efficiency and accuracy of the intermating and introgression techniques by using DNA markers to track the intermating and introgression processes over generations. Use the rapidly expanding arsenal of molecular techniques to develop and evaluate near isogenic lines with phenotypic variants for fiber and leaf trichomes. Study trichome initiation mechanisms using the isogenic lines. Evaluate the feasibility of using cotton genotypes with low attachment strengths to improve ginning efficiency and decrease fiber damage during the ginning process. Increase the use of cotton seed for animal and fish feed by introgressing traits that make the seed less toxic. Improve cotton’s host plant resistance (HPR) to pests, by introgressing into adapted lines, existing traits that improve the levels of protective compounds in the plant and the nectariless trait that decreases the plant’s attractiveness to insects. Provide a venue to test elite lines and new varieties through coordinated multi-location tests, and use the data generated to compile a database of performance data across locations and years. Evaluate the potential of new fiber quality measurements compared to existing measurement methods.