Location: Plant Gene Expression Center
Project Number: 2030-21000-039-00-D
Project Type: Appropriated
Start Date: Mar 24, 2013
End Date: Mar 23, 2018
The circadian clock in crop plants controls important performance traits including growth, timing of flowering and stress and pathogen responses by coordinating daily and seasonal changes in physiology. The long term goal of this project is to define at the genetic and molecular levels the circadian system in grain crops, including corn, and its impact on agronomic traits. This project will use genomic, genetic, and molecular methods to identify and characterize the circadian system in corn, utilizing resources and tools in corn and other model plant systems as appropriate. The circadian system genes identified will provide gene targets for enhancing crop performance and adaptation to global climate change. The objectives of the project are: Objective 1: Identify and characterize genes required for circadian rhythms in grain crops. Objective 2: Identify and characterize genes required for circadian clock-regulated developmental processes in grain crops. Objective 3: Analyze the contribution of the circadian system to drought responses in grain crops.
The genes required for circadian rhythms in maize remain uncharacterized. The goal of Objective 1 is to identify and/or construct mutants in candidate genes to define the genes that participate in the core circadian oscillator. Subsequent analysis of mutants will establish the function of their gene products to understand the molecular nature of the maize circadian oscillator. The hypotheses to be tested are: Mutations in circadian clock genes will alter circadian clock-driven transcription; Additional mutant alleles in clock genes can be identified and constructed using publicly available germplasm collections; and, Regional mutagenesis with the Ds transposon will create additional gi2 knockout alleles. Work in model plants demonstrates that the circadian system is deeply imbedded in regulatory networks that control growth and developmental processes. Whether such a regulatory system exists in maize remains an open question. The goal of Objective 2 is to investigate whether circadian regulation is an important contributor to maize growth and development by studying circadian clock mutants. The hypotheses to be tested are: Maize circadian clock genes are involved in regulation of maize flowering time; gi functions within the genetic networks known to control maize flowering time; The gi and tocl1 genes underlie known flowering time QTL; gi activity contributes to the timing of the juvenile to adult transition; and, Maize clock genes participate in regulation of growth. Specific core circadian oscillator genes play important roles in the responses of model plants to drought stress, in part through regulation of phytohormone signaling. The goal of Objective 3 is test whether drought stress and phytohormone responses in maize depend on the activity of circadian clock genes. The hypotheses to be tested are: The tocl1 gene is involved in maize drought responses; and, The tocl1 gene contributes to ABA responses in maize.