Location: Foreign Animal Disease Research
Project Number: 8064-32000-057-55-S
Project Type: Non-Assistance Cooperative Agreement
Start Date: Aug 1, 2013
End Date: Aug 30, 2015
Vaccine performance has been traditionally limited to protection against disease with no assessment of immune responses. Many state they monitored immune responses but commonly, what is actually being done is quantitating antibody responses in serum. Serum antibody responses are a fraction of the overall immune response to vaccination and very often a poor correlate to protection from challenge. Vaccination is the process of artificially inducing an immune response to protect against exposure to the pathogen. Yet, in cattle and swine, we have little understanding of the immune responses to vaccination, just, disease or no disease. Analysis of human immune responses is much more sophisticated in the recent literature. We have now adapted systems for analyzing human immune responses to cattle and developed new technologies for assaying bovine lymphocytes that result in a much more rapid and accurate assessment of the performance of newly designed vaccines in vivo. The goal of this research is to provide correlates of protection that can be used to analyze vaccine performance without the need for challenge with the pathogen. The application of these research results will lead to the development of better vaccines for cattle and more accurate systems for vaccine assessment.
Utilizing previously developed tetramer technology, the human adenovirus 5 vectored Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine (Ad5FMD) will be analyzed; inclusive of conducting vaccine trails on Holstein cattle maintained by the University of Vermont (UVM). Initial regulatory approvals necessary to conduct non-infectious activities on the UVM herd will be obtained from the Vermont State veterinary authorities and USDA, APHIS. Cattle will be tissue typed for expression of bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) and subsequently vaccinated with Ad5FMD vaccine. Infectious virus challenge will be conducted at ARS, PIADC.