Location: Poultry Research2013 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Objective 1: Determine the metabolizable energy and maximum inclusion rates of various alternative feed ingredients fed to heavy broilers. Sub-objective 1.A. Determine the Apparent Metabolizable Energy (AME) of De-oiled Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DO-DDGS) in broilers aged 21 and 49 days. Sub-objective 1.B. Determine maximum inclusion rates of DO- DDGS when fed to heavy broilers. Sub-objective 1.C. Determine the AME of algae meal in broilers aged 21 and 49 days old. Sub-objective 1.D. Determine maximum inclusion rates of algae meal when fed to heavy broilers. Sub-objective 1.E. Determine the AME of camelina meal in broilers aged 21 and 49 days old. Sub-objective 1.F. Determine maximum inclusion rates of camelina meal when fed to heavy broilers. Objective 2: Determine the interactive effects of various fat sources and feed additives on growth potential, meat yields, and blood physiological and biochemical variables when fed to heavy broilers. Sub-objective 2.A. Evaluate the effects of blending animal and vegetable fats on production efficiency and meat yields in heavy broilers. Sub-objective 2.B. Evaluate interactive effects of exogenous enzymes and alternative ingredients on production efficiency, meat yields, and blood chemistry in heavy broilers. Objective 3: Characterize gut microflora and the interactive effects on live performance and gut microflora of heavy broilers fed diets containing feed additives and alternative feed ingredients. Sub-objective 3.A. Characterization of gut microflora and assessment when heavy broilers are fed diets containing alternative feed ingredients. Sub-objective 3.B. Determine the interactive effects exogenous enzymes and alternative ingredients on gut microflora and growth potential in heavy broiler diets.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Two trials will be conducted to determine Apparent Metabolizable Energy (AME) of DO-DDGS. Each trial will evaluate AME of De-oiled Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DO-DDGS) at three different ages in broilers; 7 and 21 (Trial 1) and 49 (Trial 2) days of age. For each trial, two rooms will be used and each room will have 32 battery cages for a total of 64 cages. The same facility will be used in each trial. All trials will evaluate the same four dietary treatments with incremental amounts of DO-DDGS added to the basal diet. In each room, the four experimental diets will be fed to broilers in 8 replicate cages. The dimensions of each cage are 0.61 meters × 0.66 meters bird density will consist of 18 chicks from 0 to 10 days of age, 14 chicks per cage from 14 to 21 days of age for 21 day determination, and 8 chicks per cage from 42 to 49 days for AME determination. One feeder and nipple drinker will be provided for each cage. For Trial 1, day-old male broiler chicks will be obtained from a commercial hatchery and will be weighed into groups and randomly allocated to the battery cages will be fed experimental diets until day 7. On day 7, excreta pans will be cleaned and 72 hour collection period will be started. Upon completion of the experimental period at 10 days of age, birds will be placed into floor pens and fed a common diet until the start of the adaptation period for 21 day AME determination. On days 14 and 42, birds will be weighed into groups and randomly allocated to the battery cages. On days 18 and 46, after a four day adaptation period, excreta pans will be cleaned to ensure that all previous diets will be voided and excreta will then be collected over a 72 hour period. For all trials, birds will be allowed ad libitum feed consumption of the experimental diets throughout the entire adaptation and experimental period. Upon completion of the experimental period, birds will be returned to floor pens until the next age period. An inert dietary marker, titanium dioxide, will be added to the experimental diets and used to calculate AME of the feedstuffs. Measurements collected during experimentation will consist of feed consumption, body weight, gross energy of feed and excreta, titanium dioxide content in the feed and the excreta, and fat content. The AME of the feedstuff will be determined using the following formulas: Apparent metabolizable energy= 1-(GEexcreta ÷ TiO2 excreta) – (GEfeed ÷ TiO2 feed). In Trials 1 and 2, four experimental diets will be used: 1) basal diet consisting of corn, soybean meal, and poultry by-product; 2) basal diet plus 10% DO-DDGS; 3) basal diet plus 15% DO-DDGS; and 4) basal diet plus 20% DO-DDGS. The four treatments will be evaluated at 21 and again at 49 days of age. The same basal diet will be provided in all trials. The basal diet will be formulated to meet or exceed nutrient requirements for all age groups, with the exception of energy, which will be formulated to be lower in energy to allow for any differences in Metabolizable Energy (ME) to be from the addition of DO-DDGS, which will allow for a calculation of AME of a DO-DDGS.
3. Progress Report:
Two apparent metabolizable energy (AME) determination trials were conducted to determine AME of de-oiled distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) at 7 and 21 days of age (doa). Broilers were fed a low-energy basal diet with incremental amounts of de-oiled DDGS added to the low energy basal diet and AME of the de-oiled DDGS was determined by using the substitution method. Preliminary analysis indicates that at 21 doa, the AME of de-oiled DDGS was found to be a 2,532kcal/kg. A full fat DDGS has a reported ME of approximately 3,060 kcal/kg indicating an approximately 18% decrease in AME with the removal of corn oil from DDGS. AME data for 7 doa determination has been inconclusive.
Kim, E.J., Utterback, P.L., Parsons, C.M. 2012. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for corn, corn gluten meal, and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) among three different bioassays. Poultry Science. 91:3141-3147.