Project Number: 2080-21000-015-02-R
Project Type: Reimbursable Cooperative Agreement
Start Date: Sep 1, 2012
End Date: Aug 31, 2017
1) Evaluate practical use of honey bees together with Osmia lignaria as a strategy for integrated pollination management; 2) Examine effect of the addition of flowering plants besides almond bloom that provides resources for bee nesting on reproduction and abundance of managed and unmanaged bees.
1)Orchards will be pollinated with honey bees alone or with honey bees in addition to Osmia lignaria; nut yields from orchards will be used to assess pollination efficacy of the solo or tandem pollinators; also, visual observations will record behaviors interactions between bee species to assess synergistic effects of bees on each other. 2) Early-blooming plants will be grown between rows of almond trees; their use as alternative post-almond bloom forage for bees in orchards will be measured through assessment of managed bee reproduction (using nest dissections and x-rays) and bee abundance (using surveys) in general; above nut and bee yields will be compared to orchards without additional forage.