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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Related Topics

Research Project: Genetics and Management of Soybean Cyst Nematodes and Diseases for Sustainable Production

Location: Crop Genetics Research

2013 Annual Report


1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Objective 1: Develop new soybean germplasm with resistance to soybean cyst nematode populations, Macrophomina (M.) phaseolina, and other fungal diseases of soybean using traditional and marker-assisted breeding methods. Sub-objective 1.A. Identify new sources of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) resistance in Glycine max. Sub-objective 1.B. Characterize new sources for unique resistance genes and develop molecular markers associated with resistance. Sub-objective 1.C. Pyramid nematode resistance genes into elite backgrounds of maturity groups III, IV, and V in combination with resistance to charcoal rot and other fungal diseases to develop new germplasm/cultivars. Objective 2: Characterize the variability of Macrophomina phaseolina in soybean and develop improved methods to identify resistance. Sub-objective 2.A. Phenotype the isolates of M. phaseolina based on pathogenicity. Sub-objective 2.B. Determine spatial distribution of M. phaseolina populations in a field. Sub-objective 2.C. Evaluate soybean germplasm, breeding lines and cultivars for host plant resistance against field isolates of (a) M. phaseolina (b) Phomopsis longicolla (Phomopsis Seed Decay) and (c) Cercospora sojina (Frogeye Leaf Spot). Objective 3: Develop improved management practices to reduce soybean cyst nematode reproduction. Sub-objective 3.A. Characterize the interaction between Pasteuria nishizawae and H. glycines to reduce the impact of soybean cyst nematode on soybean production. Sub-objective 3.B. Identify the interaction of soybean cyst nematode with other plant-parasitic nematodes of importance in Mid South soybean production fields.


1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Identify the interaction of soybean cyst nematode with other plant-parasitic nematodes of importance in Mid South soybean production fields. Pyramid nematode resistance genes into elite backgrounds of maturity groups III, IV, and Vin combination with resistance to charcoal rot and other fungal diseases to develop new germplasm/cultivars. Identify new sources of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) resistance in Glycine max. Characterize new sources for unique resistance genes and develop molecular markers associated with resistance. Phenotype the isolates ofM. phaseolina based on pathogenicity. Determine spatial distribution of M. phaseolina populations in a field. Evaluate soybean germplasm, breeding lines and cultivars for host plant resistance against field isolates of (a) M. phaseolina (b) Phomopsis longicolla (Phomopsis Seed Decay) and (c) Cercospora sojina (Frogeye Leaf Spot). Characterize the interaction between Pasteuria nishizawae and Heterodera (H.) glycines to reduce the impact of soybean cyst nematode on soybean production.


3. Progress Report:
Several improved germplasms with durable resistance to nematodes and other fungal diseases were entered into USDA Southern Uniform Tests for multi-location evaluations. A conventional soybean germplasm, JTN-4307, with resistance to multiple soybean cyst nematode (SCN) populations and fungal pathogens and especially to Frogeye Leaf Spot (FLS) is being released. SCN resistance in PI88788 was broadened by crossing it to a diverse line, Columbia, and JTN-3109-3 was selected for more durable resistance. A mapping population was developed to identify new marker(s) tagged to the broadened resistance. USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection was screened in the greenhouse and eleven additional sources of nematode resistance were identified. These included soybean PI lines 512322D, 522186, 522190, 538408, 567488A, 567488B, 567650C, 567679B, 567676A, 567690, and 567726. Using screening protocols developed for evaluation and identification of resistance, breeding lines and commercial cultivars are being assessed for charcoal rot, Phomopsis Seed Decay and Frogeye Leaf Spot. Thirteen lines that exhibited high level of resistance to charcoal have been identified among 113 germplasm lines having resistance to SCN. These 13 lines will be released as sources of resistance to the disease. In addition, several lines with resistance to Frogeye Leaf Spot and moderate resistance to Phomopsis have been planted for validation of resistance. Among the lines evaluated for Frogeye, 246 are recombinant inbred lines that were developed for charcoal rot resistance, and 100 lines are the same ones being tested for Phomopsis resistance. This approach is valuable to identify multiple disease resistant lines. The effects of planting date and yield effects of charcoal rot on soybeans are also being assessed. Research is underway on a long term soybean experiment comparing single-cropped to double-cropped soybeans and winter wheat. The main plots include tillage and no-tillage treatments. Bacterial biological control is one aspect of management of soybean cyst nematode, and two new commercially available seed treatment nematicides contain gram positive bacteria as the active ingredient. One protects soybean roots and the other contains a parasite of soybean cyst nematode. Two bacterial parasites of soybean cyst nematode have been found in two research plots in Tennessee. One hyperparasite has been identified, and the unidentified one was found in the tillage study described above. In greenhouse studies, soil samples collected from pots containing seed treated with a bacterial nematicide and no seed treatment were processed for presence of gram positive bacteria using selective media (crystal violet agar). Results showed that a technique comparing number of bacterial colonies on crystal violet agar to media without the crystal violet could be used to detect the presence of the bacterial nematicide in soil samples.


4. Accomplishments


Review Publications
Donald, P.A., Holguin, C.M., Agudelo, P.A. 2013. First report of Lance Nematode (Hoplolaimus magnistylus) on corn, soybean and cotton in Tennessee. Plant Disease. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-12-0881-PDN.

Goheen, S.C., Campbell, J.A., Donald, P.A. 2013. Nutritional requirements for soybean cyst nematode. Intech . 1:1-17.

Mengistu, A., Bond, J., Nelson, R.L., Rupe, J., Shannon, G., Arelli, P.R., Wrather, A. 2013. Identification of soybean accessions resistant to macrophomina phaseolina by field screening and laboratory validation. Online. Plant Health Progress. 10.1094/PHP-2013-0318-01-RS.

Last Modified: 10/16/2017
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