Location: Plant Genetics Research2013 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Conduct experiments to improve the oil profile of soybean seeds. Evaluate new combinations of fatty acid profiles with the high oleic acid trait. This project will produce soybean germplasm in a high oleic acid background with additional oil profile traits to determine the effect of different combinations of genes to produce desirable fatty acid profiles in the oil. Targets include high oleic acid (HO) plus low palmitic acid, HO plus low palmitic acid and low linolenic acid, HO plus high stearic acid. The genes controlling the traits will be merged using the latest molecular marker technology, and germplasm will be produced and tested in an appropriate field environment for the fatty acid profiles of the seeds.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Molecular genetics and plant breeding experiments will be conducted to combine desired mutant alleles controlling the accumulation of different fatty acids in the seed oil. Different crosses will be made between parental lines containing the two genes for the high oleic acid trait and parental lines containing other fatty acid profile traits, including low palmitic acid and elevated stearic acid. Genotyping selections with existing or newly developed molecular marker assays will be performed on the F1 and F2 progeny. Standard population development will be used to advance selected lines to obtain materials for phenotypic evaluation. Field tests will be set up to compare different combinations of alleles important for the seed oil fatty acid profiles to evaluate the effect of each of the alleles working in combination. Laboratory, field, and winter nursery are all components of this research.
3. Progress Report:
This research relates to the in-house project objective "to develop the molecular basis for modification of the fatty acid components of soybean oil and anti-nutritional components in soybean meal to use in accelerated breeding programs" by determining what gene combinations are necessary to achieve different fatty acid profiles for more functional soybean oils. A two-location, replicated field trial in 2012 provided seed to evaluate the fatty acid phenotypes from soybeans with the following traits: the high oleic (HO) acid trait alone (three versions, depending on the fatty acid desaturase gene (FAD2-1A) alleles utilized), and the HO acid trait plus low linolenic acid, low saturated fatty acids, and elevated stearic acid. Fatty acid analyses were performed and the data was subjected to statistical analysis. Additional novel gene combinations were developed and advanced in the winter nursery. A second year of the two-location, replicated field trials was planted in 2013.