1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
To identify components of flavor and nutrition in tangerine fruit.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Perform sensory evaluation and analyze flavor volatiles, carotenoids and other nutritional components from new tangerine hybrid fruit by using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC and olfactometry (GC-O) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Identify changes in volatile and carotenoid composition among selected hybrids, harvest time and year.
3. Progress Report:
This project is related to Objective 1 of this in-house project: Evaluate the effect of genetics on microbial and composition of flavor and healthful compounds sugars, acids, volatiles, carotenoids, total phenolics, pectin and fiber -in citrus, tomato, and subtropical-bred small fruit breeding lines. And Objective 2: Relate chemical composition to sensory flavor and pathogen resistance data from Objective 1 to determine which compounds are important for flavor or have antimicrobial properties. Tangerine hybrids were harvested multiple times over two harvest seasons and analyzed for flavor volatiles as well as sensory evaluation. Results provide information on the effect of season and maturity on flavor volatile formation in citrus, which in turn will help determine harvest time for optimum eating quality. It was found that some of the new hybrids had a larger harvest window than the commercial variety standard. For example, the optimum maturity of a new University of Florida hybrid, UF 411, was determined to be from Mid-January to end of March, in contrast to ‘Murcott’ for which eating quality declined after mid-March. Furthermore, the volatile profile in UF 411 was different from that of ‘Murcott’, its female parent, UF 411 having more esters and less aldehydes, and resulting in more orange-like and fruity flavor. Taste and flavor components could be explained by amounts of specific volatiles: limonene and monoterpenes explained bitterness in ‘Murcott’, alpha- and beta-phellandrene explained floral flavor. “Pumpkin” flavor, an indicator of overripe fruit, was explained by different volatile components in Murcott than for UF 411, but in general, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols explained this peculiar flavor. Understanding the components of flavor in tangerine fruit is important for management of harvest and storage of tangerine fruit in order to deliver quality fruit on the market.