1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
The goal of this proposal is to facilitate the rapid, efficient development and introduction of new potato varieties with lowered concentrations of acrylamide in their potato products following processing.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
The ARS potato breeding program at Aberdeen, Idaho will be a participating field site for the production and evaluation of breeding clones and varieties for: 1) the National Fry Processing Trial, 2) potato mapping populations to determine the genetic heritabilities of asparagine, tuber sugars, and acrylamide, and 3) identifying and validating SNP markers for their usefulness in marker-assisted selection for tuber sugar content. Participation also will include providing seed of material for evaluation for lowered acrylamide formation based on reduced tuber sugars and asparagine concentrations.
3. Progress Report:
Seed of 43 breeding clones and their parents Rio Grande Russet and Premier Russet were produced with seed being used for planting of replicated trials in Kimberly, Idaho, by our project and with a collaborator Michigan in 2012 and 2013. The forty-three clones represent a range in processing characteristics from poorer (like the Rio Grande Russet parent) to exceptional (like the Premier Russet parent) and with intermediates between the two parents being represented as well. This population provides information regarding segregation for acrylamide and the contribution of sugar and asparagine precursors to acrylamide formation. Tubers harvested from the 2012 field trial in Idaho, were evaluated for processing attributes and acrylamide levels by collaborators in Idaho and Wisconsin with a range of fry colors and acrylamide concentrations observed. Seventy-eight entries of the National Fry Processing Trial (NFPT) also were planted, maintained, and harvested at Aberdeen, Idaho in 2013—Aberdeen being one of five sites of the 2013 NFPT. The purpose of the NFPT being the identification of potato breeding clones with low acrylamide concentrations following processing that would also meet the agronomic and sensory characteristics required by the potato processing industry. Data from the 2011 and 2012 NFPT trials was used in identifying low acrylamide breeding clones with potential for commercial use by the processing industry. Two breeding clones submitted to the NFPT by the associated ARS project were identified for rapid seed multiplication for larger-scale commercial field and processing evaluations, with a chipping clone from the ARS project also having been identified for rapid seed multiplication, based on its favorable performance in the National Chip Processing Trial (NCPT). Seventy-five potato families from the intercrossing of lower acrylamide parents were generated with true potato seed being germinated and transplanted in the greenhouse for seedling tuber production. The research conducted contributes to parent project Objective 1: "Develop enhanced potato germplasm and varieties for the most important market classes for the western United States, with emphasis on recurrent and emerging disease and pest resistance (late blight, Potato mop top virus, Potato leafroll virus, Potato virus Y, emerging cyst nematodes, and Zebra Chip), reduced sugar and acrylamide accumulation, reduced production inputs (nitrogen and water), and enhanced nutritional qualities (vitamin C and protein)" and 2: "Devise marker-assisted selection (MAS) protocols to accelerate breeding for resistance to recurrent and emerging pathogens and pests (Potato virus Y, Potato leafroll virus, and potato cyst nematode) that impact the western United States".