Functional Genomics Approaches for Controlling Diseases of Poultry
Animal Biosciences & Biotechnology Laboratory
2012 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Objective 1: Develop immune reagents to detect host effector molecules controlling immune responses and determine the role of host effector molecules in disease resistance to discover biological determinants associated with disease resistance to infectious diseases of poultry.
Sub-objective 1a: Develop immune reagents to detect host effector molecules controlling immune responses to NE.
Sub-objective 1b: Determine the role of host effector molecular in NE disease resistance.
Objective 2: Discover effective immune intervention strategies to prevent and control infectious diseases of poultry through use of nutrients as immune modulators to enhance gut health and develop strategies for their use in increasing production efficiency. Identify effector molecules of innate immunity and develop strategies for their use in reducing economic losses associated with enteric diseases of poultry.
Sub-objective 2a: Use nutrients as immune modulators to enhance gut health and develop strategies for their use in increasing production efficiency.
Sub-objective 2b: Identify effector molecules of innate immunity and develop strategies for their use in reducing economic losses associated with enteric diseases of poultry.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
Develop immune reagents to detect host effector molecules controlling immune responses. Determine the role of the host effector molecules in disease resistance. Discover biological determinants associated with disease resistance to infectious diseases of poultry.
3. Progress Report:
For Objective 1, progress was made in developing new poultry immune reagents that detect cell surface glycoproteins of major immune cells which enable the isolation and biological characterization of two major cell populations of the poultry immune system for detailed immunological research. Two groups of mouse hybridomas that secrete mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for dendritic cells (CD80) and regulatory T cells (CD25) of the poultry immune system were developed and characterized. The CD80 marker successfully isolated chicken dendritic cells, while progress was made with the immunological characterization of CD25. Since these are the first group of immune reagents which detect chicken dendritic cells and regulatory T cells, these reagents will be useful for basic and applied research in both diseased and normal chickens. Progress in assessing gene expression of avian innate immune molecules, such as avian beta-defensin messenger RNA, was made using a necrotic enteritis (NE) disease model in two genetically disparate commercial broiler chicken lines, designated as R and C. Although the exact nature of interactions between defensins and cytokines in determining the outcome of host innate immune responses to the pathogens of NE remains to be investigated, the observation that differences in gene expression levels of beta-defensins and pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with NE disease susceptibility and resistance could lead to genetic selection strategies to improve NE disease resistance in broilers. For Objective 2, alternative strategies to mitigate the use of antibiotics have been developed and these include dietary and recombinant vaccination strategies. Cinnamaldehyde (CINN) is a constituent of cinnamon that has been traditionally used to treat human diseases, and possesses antifungal, antipyretic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and larvicidal activities. Our previous study showed that dietary feeding of CINN along with carvacrol and capsicum to day-old chickens improved gut immunity against coccidiosis and significantly altered the level of gene expression in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. In vivo trials demonstrated that CINN-fed chickens showed significant improvement in body weight gains following challenge infection with live parasites of Eimeria, and improvement in various aspects of host immune parameters, including cytokine levels. Progress has been made in developing and improving the vaccine efficacy of recombinant proteins against coccidiosis and NE. In collaboration with a private company, the efficacy of aqueous nanoparticle-based mucosal delivery adjuvant in combination with a parasite subunit protein was demonstrated against avian coccidiosis. Progress was made in the identification of macrophage migration inhibitory factor, a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in host defense against a variety of microorganisms including protozoan parasites.
Lee, S.H., Lillehoj, H.S., Jang, S., Lee, K., Lillehoj, E., Yancy, R.J., Dominowski, P., Kim, D. 2010. Evaluation of novel adjuvant Eimeria profilin complex on intestinal host immune responses against live E. acervulina challenge infection. Avian Diseases. 28(39):6498-6504.
Ma, H., Pan, Z., Gao, M., Luo, L. 2008. Efficacy in Microbial Sterilization of Pulsed Magnetic Field Treatment. International Journal of Food Engineering. 4(4):1-14.
Lee, K., Lillehoj, H.S., Li, G., Park, M., Jang, S., Lillehoj, E.P., Jeong, W., Jeong, H., An, D. 2011. Identification and cloning of two immunogenic Clostridium perfringens proteins, elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) of C. perfringens. Research in Veterinary Science. 91:e80-86.
Lee, K., Lillehoj, H.S., Jeong, W., Jeoung, H., An, D. 2011. Avian necrotic enteritis: Experimental models, climate change, and vaccine development. Poultry Science. 90:1381-1390.
Lillehoj, H.S., Kim, D., Bravo, D.M., Lee, S.H. 2012. Effects of dietary plant-derived phytonutrients on the genome-wide profiles and coccidiosis resistance in the broiler chickens. BioMed Central (BMC) Proceedings. 5:S34. Available: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1753-6561/5/S4/S34.
Kim, D., Lillehoj, H.S., Min, W., Kim, C., Park, M., Hong, Y., Lillehoj, E. 2012. Comparative microarray analysis of intestinal lymphocytes following Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella infection in the chicken. PLoS One. 6(11). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027712.
Lillehoj, H.S., Kim, D.K., Lee, S.H., Jang, S.I., Bravo, D. 2011. High-throughput gene expression analysis of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes following oral feeding of Carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, or capsicum oleoresin. Poultry Science. 89(1):68-81.
Lillehoj, H.S., Jang, S.I., Lee, S.H., Lee, K.W., Park, M.S., Lillehoj, E.P., Betrand, F., Dupuis, L., Deville, S. 2011. Effect of montanide adjuvants on recombinant coccidia antigen vaccination against Eimeria infection in commercial meat-type chickens. Veterinary Parasitology. 172(3-4):221-228.
Lee, K., Li, G., Lillehoj, H.S., Lee, S.H., Jang, S.I., Babu, U.S., Lillehoj, E.P., Newumann, A.P., Siragusa, G.R. 2011. Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials augment macrophage function in broiler chickens. Research in Veterinary Science. 91:E87-91.
Lee, S.H., Lillehoj, H.S., Jang, S., Lee, K., Bravo, D., Lillehoj, E.P. 2011. Effects of dietary supplementation with phytonutrients on vaccine-stimulated immunity against infection with Eimeria tenella. Veterinary Parasitology. 181:97-105.
Yoo, J., Kang, S.H., Jeong, J., Kim, W.H., Kim, S., Lillehoj, H.S., Min, W. 2012. The effects of simple and disposable chicken cages for experimental Eimeria infections. Korean Journal of Poultry Science. 49:299-302.
Kim, D., Lillehoj, H.S., Lee, S.H., Dominowski, P., Yancey, R., Lillehoj, E. 2012. Effects of novel vaccine/adjuvant complexes on the protective immunity against Eimeria acervulina and transcriptome profiles. Avian Diseases. 56:97-109.
Hong, Y., Lillehoj, H.S., Song, W., Lee, S.H. 2012. Differential gene expression profiles of ß-defensins in the crop, intestine, and spleen using a necrotic enteritis model in two commercial broiler chicken lines. Poultry Science. 91(5):1081-1088.
Kim, D., Lillehoj, H.S., Lee, S.H., Lillehoj, E., Bravo, D. 2012. Improved resistance to Eimeria acervulina infection in chickens due to dietary supplementation with garlic metabolites. British Journal of Nutrition. p. 1-13.
Shirley, M.W., Lillehoj, H.S. 2012. The long view: A selective review of 40 years of coccidiosis research. Avian Pathology. 41(2):111-121.
Lee, S.H., Lillehoj, H.S., Jang, S.I., Lee, K.W., Park, M.S., Bravo, D., Lillehoj, E. 2012. Cinnamaldehyde enhances in vitro parameters of immunity and reduces in vivo infection against avian coccidiosis. British Journal of Nutrition. 106:862-869.
Yim, D., Kang, S.S., Kim, D.W., Kim, S.H., Lillehoj, H.S., Min, W. 2012. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens. Experimental Parasitology. 127:322-325.
Lee, B.H., Kim, W.H., Jeong, J., Yoo, J., Kwon, Y.K., Jung, B.Y., Kwon, J.H., Lillehoj, H.S., Min, W. 2012. Prevalence and cross-immunity of Eimeria species on Korean chicken farms. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 72-985-989.
Lillehoj, H.S., Lee, S.H., Jang, S.I., Kim, D., Lee, K.W. 2012. Recent progress in understanding host mucosal response to avian coccidiosis and development of alternative strategies to mitigate the use of antibiotics in animal production. Korean Journal of Poultry Science. 38:275-284.
Lee, S.H., Lillehoj, H.S., Jang, S.I., Baldwin, C., Tompkins, D., Wagner, B., Parcells, M., Del Cacho, E., Hong, Y.H., Min, W., Lillehoj, E.P. 2012. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies reactive with chicken interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (CD25). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 144:396-404.
Jang, S.I., Lillehoj, H.S., Lee, S.H., Lee, K., Lillehoj, E.P., Bertrand, F., Dupuis, L., Deville, S. 2012. Mucosal immunity against Eimeria acervulina infection in broiler chickens following oral immunization with profilin in Montanide adjuvants. Experimental Parasitology. 129:36.41.
Jang, S.I., Lillehoj, H.S., Lee, S.H., Lee, K.W., Lillehoj, E., Bertrand, F., Dupuis, L., Deville, S. 2012. Montanide IMS 1313 N VG PR nanoparticle adjuvant enhances antigen-specific immune responses to profilin following mucosal vaccination against Eimeria acervulina. Veterinary Parasitology. 182:163-170.
Jang, S.I., Lillehoj, H.S., Lee, S.H., Kim, D., Bosch, M., Hong, Y.H., Min, W., Lillehoj, E.P. 2012. Distinct immunoregulatory properties of macrophage migration inhibitory factors encoded by Eimeria parasites and their chicken host. Vaccine. 29:8998-9004.
Lee, K., Lillehoj, H.S., Lee, S.H., Jang, S.I., Ritter, D.G., Bautista, D.A., Lillehoj, E. 2012. Impact of fresh or used litter on the post-hatch immune system of commercial broilers. Avian Diseases. 55:539-544.
Dong, X., Abdelnabi, G.H., Lee, S.H., Li, G., Jin, H., Lillehoj, H.S., Suo, X. 2012. Enhanced egress of intracellular Eimeria tenella sporozoites by splenic lymphocytes from coccidia-infected chickens. Infection and Immunity. 79:3465-3470.
Sunkara, L.T., Achanta, M., Frye, N.B., Bommineni, Y.R., Dai, G., Jiang, W., Kaiser, M.G., Lamont, S., Lillehoj, H.S., Baker, A., Teeter, R.G., Zhang, G. 2012. Butyrate enhances disease resistance of chickens by inducing antimicrobial host defense peptide gene expression. PLoS One. 6(11):e27225.
Del Cacho, E., Gallego, M., Lee, S.H., Lillehoj, H.S., Quilez, J., Lillehoj, E., Sanchez-Acedo, C. 2012. Induction of protective immunity against Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria acervulina infections using DC-derived exosomes. Infection and Immunity. 80:1909-1916.