1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
Primary objectives of this research are the development, evaluation, and release of improved winter and spring malt and specialty barley cultivars.. Included in these cultivars are 1) two and six-rowed spring and winter malt barleys, 2) two-rowed spring high beta-glucan (BG) and low phytate (LP) barley types, 3) two and six-rowed winter feed barley types and 4) two-rowed winter high beta-glucan and LP barleys. In addition, when applicable, improved germplasm will also be developed and released.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Utilizing existing testing locations and off-season winter nurseries for the F2 and F4 generations, populations will be advanced to the F5 generation in bulk and F5:6 lines derived for yield evaluation. Lines will be derived from plants as opposed to spikes, and will therefore begin yield evaluation directly following derivation. The necessity to pull individual plants is the reason for the large majority of salary documented in this form. Approximately 450 crosses covering all market classes in both winter and spring backgrounds will be made each spring and spring populations advanced as previously discussed. Winter populations will be advanced in bulk under field conditions, except for specific populations which may be advanced in the greenhouse. Quality evaluations for LP will begin in the F3 stage and seed from spikes which are fixed for the LP trait will be bulked and advanced. Evaluations for BG will begin in the F5 generation and plants which show sufficient levels of BG will be advanced to F5:6 yield plots. Quality evaluation for malt quality will begin with the advanced yield trials, following at least two years of prior yield evaluation.
3. Progress Report
ARS Aberdeen recently received approval to begin work on a third year of the Barley for Rural Development projected led by Montana State University and the University of Idaho. Under this project, ARS Aberdeen will continue its development of barley lines with increased grain soluble fiber (beta glucan) and antioxidant levels (vitamin E). To date, the genetic “blueprint” for the cellular machinery necessary to increase the aforementioned grain attributes has been decoded. Work is being done to identify changes in these blueprints which increase fiber and antioxidants. In addition, this information is being used to screen the National Small Grain Barley collection for variations in these blueprints that will translate in identification of novel barley lines with improve nutritional qualities. This work will allow target development of high beta glucan lines possible in oat. This work directly relates to objective 3 of the current ARS Aberdeen project plan (5366-21000-024-00D) “Develop improved barley and oat cultivars meeting the needs of conventional and specialty markets for both dryland and irrigated production systems.” Monitoring of the project is done via site visits, phone conversations, e-mail, and written correspondence.