Location: Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research2012 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Objective 1. Determine the effects of fertilizer source and fertilizer additives on nutrient budgets in irrigated agricultural systems. (Tarkalson 0.5, Leytem 0.5, Dungan 0.2, Ippolito 0.15). Subobjective 1.1. Identify effects of fertilizer source, and nitrification and urease inhibitors on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from soils under irrigation. Subobjective 1.2. Identify effects of fertilizer source, and nitrification and urease inhibitors on carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling and losses from soils under irrigation. Subobjective 1.3. Identify effects of fertilizer source, and nitrification and urease inhibitors on crop nutrient removal from soils under irrigation. Objective 2. Develop utilization practices for agricultural byproducts to increase nutrient and water use efficiency. (Lentz 0.5, Lehrsch 0.4, Ippolito 0.1). Subobjective 2.1. Identify effects of biochar and other amendments on soil carbon, nitrogen, and micronutrient budgets and water availability over time. Subobjective 2.2. Identify the effects of agricultural byproducts and soil water content on the emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide gases from freezing and thawing soils.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
The research for all objectives will be conducted at the ARS Northwest irrigation and soils laboratory in Kimberly, Idaho. Project objectives will be achieved through three main studies conducted at different scales to improve our understanding and management of soil nutrients. Research for Objective 1 involves a five year field study comparing soil ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions, soil nutrient cycling and crop nutrient uptake from selected fertilizer or manure treatments combined with nitrification and urease inhibitors. More detailed field and laboratory studies will be used for Objective 2.1 to identify the effects of biochar and other amendments on nutrient cycling. Research in Objective 2.2 entails a laboratory study to collect detailed information about greenhouse gas emissions from soils during freeze thaw cycles. This project will broaden scientific knowledge of nutrient cycling in the agricultural fields to which dairy manures and fertilizers are applied, determine if selected agricultural byproducts and amendments can assist in managing nutrients and reducing emissions in arid agricultural systems, and help us better understand nutrient cycling within the broader system through validated process based models. Data from this project will be provided to scientists and organizations to improve and validate nutrient cycling models, and for other related analysis (USDA and USEPA greenhouse gas inventories, the Integrated Farm System (IFSM) model, the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Carbon Management Evaluation Tool (COMET-VR), the Daily Century Model (DayCent), and Dairy Management Inc. life cycle analysis).
3. Progress Report:
This report documents progress for project 5368-12000-010-00D, which started in October 2012 and continues research from project 5368-12000-009-00D Develop and Improve Strategies for Management of Irrigated Agricultural Crops and Soils. Objective 1: Study initiation was delayed until the fall of 2012 because a vital piece of equipment (gas chromatograph) was not available by the original start date. Objective 2a: A five-year biochar field research site was established and continues to be monitored for greenhouse gas emissions and nitrogen cycling. Two laboratory incubation microcosms were also established to monitor changes in nitrogen, micronutrients and soil water quantity. A study that improves sugarbeet utilization of mineralized nitrogen from dairy manure was published and data describing the fate of soil carbon in furrow-irrigated, manure-amended soils cropped to corn was summarized. Objective 2b: Preliminary investigations were conducted to measure changes in aggregate stability and soil gas emissions as frozen soil thaws. Freeze-thaw cycles caused soil water to redistribute and altered the near-surface aggregate stability of wet soil. Moreover, compared to ambient conditions, carbon dioxide emissions increased by a third and nitrous oxide emissions increased by a factor of eight, each peaking 24 to 26 hours after thawing began.
Bartelt-Hunt, S.L., Snow, D.D., Kranz, W.L., Mader, T.L., Shapiro, C.A., Van Donk, S.J., Shelton, D.P., Tarkalson, D.D., Zhang, T.C. 2012. Effect of growth promotants on the occurrence of endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones on feedlot soils and in runoff from beef cattle feeding operations. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 46:1352-1360.