1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
Trade barriers exist on the import of apples and cherries from the Pacific Northwest based on the presumed risk of temperate fruit flies entering and establishing in export market countries. A multi-faceted or systems approach taking into account potential fly distribution, fly detection, and fly identification components are addressed in this project. In this project we plan to evaluate potential fly distributions through modeling, evaluate attractants for flies, evaluate methods to discriminate closely related fly species, and to develop collaborations for modeling risk of infestations in orchards.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Determine critical parameters (i.e. photoperiod, chilling requirement) for diapause induction and completion in apple maggot from Washington State. We will include obligate diapausing, cafultative diapausing, and putative non-diapausing portions of AM populations. Determine critical parameters for growth and development of apple maggot and Western cherry fruit fly under climatic conditions specific for tropical regions.
3. Progress Report
This project is an extension of research on the management of insect pests of temperate tree fruits and addresses objective 1 of the related in-house project. The project, Pest risk analyses for temperate fruit flies in exported fruits, relates to National Program 304 4A, Protection of Postharvest and Quarantine: Insect Pests of Fresh Commodities, in that it addresses the potential of temperate fruit flies in tree fruits shipped from the Pacific Northwest to tropical countries. This has become an important export issue with the Northwest Tree Fruit industry. Although the biology of these pests where they are established in the U.S. exists, there are no data on their potential to establish and spread in tropical Asian-Pacific countries. Information on the biology, ecology, and physiology of apple maggot and Western cherry fruit fly are being collected and tabulated into electronic databases to be used in ecological niche models that can predict the potential for these pests to establish and spread in tropical climates. This is the first field season of the three year project, and research protocols have been developed, field trapping has been initiated, and a graduate student has been assigned to the project. The potential of temperate zone fruit flies to establish and spread in tropical Asian-Pacific countries is largely unknown. Scientists at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Wapato, WA have established a cooperative agreement with a scientist of Central Washington University to develop data on the biology, ecology, and physiology of apple maggot that will be used to develop ecological niche models that can predict the potential of these pests to establish and spread in Asian-Pacific countries. Monitoring of activities and progress on this project was accomplished by direct supervision of on-site employees, and use of site visits, email and telephone to communication with off-site collaborators.