Location: Plant Genetics Research2011 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
Evaluate new combinations of fatty acid profiles with the high oleic acid trait. This project will produce soybean germplasm in a high oleic acid background with additional oil profile traits to determine the effect of different combinations of genes to produce desirable fatty acid profiles in the oil. Targets include high oleic acid (HO) plus low palmitic acid, HO plus low palmitic acid and low linolenic acid, HO plus high stearic acid, and HO plus increased bio-available tocopherol content. The genes controlling the traits will be merged using the latest molecular marker technology, and germplasm will be produced and tested in an appropriate field environment for the fatty acid profiles of the seeds.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Molecular genetics and plant breeding experiments will be conducted to combine desired mutant alleles controlling the accumulation of different fatty acids in the seed oil. Different crosses will be made between parental lines containing the two genes for the high oleic acid trait and parental lines containing other fatty acid profile traits, including low palmitic acid and elevated stearic acid. Genotyping selections with existing or newly developed molecular marker assays will be performed on the F1 and F2 progeny. Standard population development will be used to advance selected lines to obtain materials for phenotypic evaluation. Field tests will be set up to compare different combinations of alleles important for the seed oil fatty acid profiles to evaluate the effect of each of the alleles working in combination. Laboratory, field, and winter nursery are all components of this research.
3. Progress Report
One objective is the development and analysis of high oleic acid (HO) soybean lines with additional genes that alter the fatty acid profile of the oil for improved functionality. The objective links to the in-house project "To develop the molecular basis for modification of the fatty acid components of soybean oil and anti-nutritional components in soybean meal to use in accelerated breeding programs" by determining what gene combinations are necessary to achieve different fatty acid profiles for more functional soybean oils. Towards this goal, we made genotype selections in the winter nursery at Costa Rica on plants that were segregating for the two genes responsible for the HO trait and either two genes conditioning low palmitic acid or one gene conditioning increased stearic acid. Seeds from the selected plants were shipped back to our location, and planted in our field location to produce independent single plant selections for preliminary testing of fatty acid phenotype of the oil and seed increases intended for replicated field trials in summer 2012. In addition, another objective is to determine the phenotypic stability of the oleic acid content in High Oleic (HO) lines grown across different environments. We developed lines containing the two genes responsible for the HO trait that had an early maturing parent (maturity group I). These lines will be evaluated and selected for early maturity so that plants can be identified for advancement for growth in more northern latitudes with the appropriate maturity to determine the stability of the HO trait.