Location: Soil, Water & Air Resources Research2012 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
1) Measure and characterize the emission and vertical profile of ozone, particulate matter (PM), selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, and greenhouse gases (GHGs) from dairies in California. 2) Characterize reactions of select VOCs for the formation of ozone in reaction chambers.
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
1) Measurement of the concentration profiles of PM in a commercial dairy - within facility and vertical profile from the downwind locations from the facilities. 2) Measurement of the concentration profiles of greenhouse gases (i.e., CO2, N2O, CH4) and selected VOCs (i.e., volatile fatty acids, alcohols, phenols, etc.) - within facility and vertical profile from the facilities. a. Canisters/Sorbent tubes – for VOCs b. Canisters for methane/N2O/CO2 c. Lasers and passive samplers for ammonia 3) Characterization of VOCs sorbed to particulates as a function of particle size.
3. Progress Report:
In 2012, we continued the in-life phase of the field intensive sampling program at a large size dairy (2,000 head) in Hanford, CA, monitoring the emissions of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases using both sorbent tubes and canisters. A Micromet tower with sampling positions for sorbent tubes and a canister was erected in January 2012. Week-long sampling events were conducted in Hanford, CA, in January, April, and May of 2012. Additional sampling events are scheduled for the middle of July and early August 2012. In addition to tower sampling, flux samples from both silage piles and total mixed rations were taken with Environmental Protection Agency flux chamber and small wind tunnels and canister balloon samples were taken only in January due to high winds damaging balloons in the April and May sampling periods. Data trends seen in 2011 are continuing in 2012. Training of students in Ames, IA, continues with five students from Fresno State spending one month learning various field sampling and laboratory techniques. In addition, a student in the Chemistry Department at Fresno State is currently spending the summer in our lab as part of the USDA-ARS summer intern program. Add-on projects to the original project include monitoring of particulate matter at the facility for VOC speciation characterization, researchers monitoring close to real-time aerosol trends came to our facility for validating methodology, and SIFT-MS (selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry) manufacturer Syft Technologies, Inc. (Pittsburg, PA), is visiting to test equipment. Data is currently being analyzed.