Location: Healthy Body Weight Research2012 Annual Report
1a. Objectives (from AD-416):
Objective 1: Develop and validate assessments of behavioral factors that influence energy intake by a) development and validation of a satiety index of foods that reflects interactions of food with physical activity, body mass index, gender, and age; and b) determination of the effect of exercise on energy intake and eating rate. Objective 2: Develop methods for assessing patterns of energy expenditure that include a) validation of breath markers as indicators of energy substrate utilization and; b) characterization of seasonal patterns of energy expenditure and balance in free-living individuals using novel applications of existing technologies (e.g., GPS, accelerometry, heart rate monitoring, doubly labeled water).
1b. Approach (from AD-416):
To complete the objectives of this proposal, we will conduct a series of studies with human volunteers. For Objective 1, we will model the satiating effects of selected individual food items and mixed meals. Our model will include the comparisons of hormonal and metabolic responses to food consumption to subjective satiety responses and subsequent energy intake, which we will evaluate in a repeated measures design human trial. In Objective 2a, we will conduct controlled feeding studies to determine the effects of caloric restriction and exercise on breath markers of substrate utilization. In Objective 2b, we will identify seasonal changes in body fat, as well as where, how much, and when physical activity and dietary intake vary seasonally.
3. Progress Report:
Objective 1a. Remodeling of laboratory space for use for this objective was completed in June 2012. IRB application was submitted in January 2012. IRB approval was received and volunteer recruitment began in June 2012. Objective 1b. Removed and replaced with Objective 3. Objective 2a. Data collection from experimental human studies was completed for Experiment 2. Data analysis is underway, which is informing detailed protocol development for Experiment 1. Objective 2b. IRB approval was received in June 2012. Recruitment for year one is complete and data collection began in July 2012. This project includes an examination of the role of Atlantic salmon consumption as a source of omega-3 fatty acids for humans. This project is a collaboration with the ARS-National Cold Water Aquaculture Center, Franklin, ME. We demonstrated that baking salmon decreases the presence of fatty acid oxidation products without decreasing the content of beneficial omega-3 fatty acids in salmon. We have submitted one paper demonstrating that eating baked salmon increases blood omega-3 fatty acids in a dose-dependent manner and these data were presented at the 2012 Experimental Biology meeting. This project includes an examination of the role of community-based lifestyle intervention in weight loss and improvements in body composition, fitness, and chronic disease risk biomarkers. The manuscript of results is currently being prepared and these data were presented at the 2012 Experimental Biology meeting. This project includes a validation study of the use of resonance Raman spectroscopy for measuring skin carotenoid levels as a non-invasive tool to assess fruit & vegetable (F&V) intake (blood carotenoid levels are the current standard biomarker for F&V intake). This project is a collaboration with investigators at Yale University and the University of Utah. Data collection for half of the volunteers is completed; the 2nd half of the volunteers completed the study in August 2012. One abstract has been published (and presented as an oral abstract at the annual Experimental Biology meeting. This project includes a description of barriers and facilitators to following the dietary guidelines reported by 5th grade American Indian children and parents. This is a collaboration with investigators at Candeska Chikina Community College. Data collection is complete. One abstract has been published and presented as an oral abstract at the annual Experimental Biology meeting.
1. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) rich fish is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is unknown whether consumption of cooked omega-3 rich fish causes appreciable intake of lipid oxidation products or the nature of particular oxidation products. In this project we demonstrated that baking salmon decreases the presence of fatty acid oxidation products and does not decrease the content of beneficial omega-3 fatty acids in salmon. This work has impact for consumers, health professionals, and for producers of farmed salmon.
2. Skin carotenoid concentration reflects response to a fruit/vegetable intervention study. Blood levels of carotenoids are considered the best biomarker of consumption of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake by humans. However, blood collection is invasive and reflects short-term intake. Skin carotenoid detection is a promising new method of non-invasively measuring effectiveness of FV-promoting interventions. In this controlled feeding study, we showed that skin carotenoid levels respond significantly to both increased and decreased levels of FV in the diet. This work, which is nearing completion of data collection, has impact for researchers, public health practitioners and policy makers.
Raatz, S.K., Young, L.R., Picklo, M.J., Sauter, E.R., Qin, W., Kurzer, M.S. 2012. Total dietary fat and fatty acid content modify plasma phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity indices and urinary prostaglandin E. Nutrition Research. 32:1-7.