1a. Objectives (from AD-416)
1. Establish attraction behavior of coffee berry borer. 2. Identify behaviorally active compounds using GC-EAD and GC-MS. 3. Validate attraction using lab and field bioassay and develop formulations and traps.
1b. Approach (from AD-416)
Attraction studies - we proposed to develop information on potential attractants of CBB using proven techniques used against other pests. The first is a solid understanding of the pest behavior and ecology; especially as it related to host plants such as coffee. Due to the fact that the pest spends a significant part of its life cycle in the berry, it is unclear if conventional pheromones are important in the biology of this insect. However we suspect kairomones (plant derived volatile chemicals arising from the plant may serve as important behavior cues. Identification of these chemicals will be carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In order to determine if the chemicals are detected by the insect we will employ coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) and even gustatory electrophysiology (taste recordings). Putative identified chemicals will be tested behaviorally in behavior arena such as olfactometers and a behavioral “servosphere” which allows us to measure precise distances and angles of insect that walk towards or from chemicals. Repellents - repellents will be identified using many of the procedures lists about for attractants research. Since both repellents and attracts can give similar electrophysiological signals most of the discovery will be based on the “bioassay”, tests of the compound against the whole insect. Field testing - Once putative semiochemicals are found we plan to test these in the field to establish their efficacy under real-world situations. Formulations and/or dispensers for these new semiochemicals will be developed and tested in collaboration with private industry partners who can manufacture the semiochemicals and traps for purchase by the public. (Technology transfer)
3. Progress Report
Improved semiochemicals for coffee berry borer for detection and control. Preliminary evaluations on various trap types and lure dispensers were conducted in a coffee field in Kona, Hawaii. Various trap types and lure dispensers were compared to a standard commercial trap. Further testing and improvements to optimize the trapping efficiency are ongoing. Identifying new semiochemical attractants for coffee berry borer have been initiated with the development of methods for trapping volatiles and also for recording electrophysiological responses to chemicals that are detected by the coffee berry borer. Progress is monitored through telephone and e-mail communications.